Virginia

Virginia [Context Data]

A. Context Statistics 1 2

General Child Population (Census Bureau) 3
  2016 2017 2018 2019 2020
Total children under 18 years 1,871,874 1,872,961 1,870,042 1,868,689 1,866,420
Race/ethnicity (%) 4
Alaska Native / American Indian 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.2
Asian 6.6 6.7 6.7 6.8 6.9
Black 20.0 19.9 19.9 19.9 19.9
Native Hawaiian / Other Pacific Islander <.1 <.1 <.1 <.1 <.1
Hispanic (of any race) 13.1 13.5 13.9 14.3 14.6
White 54.3 53.8 53.3 52.8 52.4
Two or more races 5.6 5.8 5.9 6.0 6.1
Child population in poverty (%) 14.3 14.0 13.7 13.4 12.1
Child Welfare Summary 5
  2016 2017 2018 2019 2020
Child maltreatment victims 5,941 6,277 6,132 6,159 5,658
Foster care entry rate 1.6 1.5 1.6 1.5 1.3
Children in foster care on 9/30 4,890 4,795 4,915 4,925 4,773
Children adopted 627 801 879 769 844
Caseworker Visits 6
  2016 2017 2018 2019 2020
Children receiving monthly visits (%) 96 96 96 96 97
Numerator 52,068 51,074 49,762 50,648 52,586
Denominator 54,081 53,155 51,977 52,666 53,977
Children receiving visits in the home (%) 77 78 78 79 82
Numerator 40,022 39,903 38,995 40,236 42,938
Denominator 52,068 51,074 49,762 50,648 52,586

1 The source data for each table is indicated in parentheses for each section. A calendar year is the basis for data from the Census Bureau. Most of the other data on these pages are from the National Child Abuse and Neglect Data System (NCANDS) or the Adoption and Foster Care Analysis and Reporting System (AFCARS) and are based on the federal fiscal year, October 1 through September 30.  Back
2 Data that did not meet the quality standards for inclusion in the report are represented as DQ*. Incomplete data excluded from inclusion in the report are represented as --. For additional information on the data quality thresholds for the Child Welfare Outcomes Report, please reference the full report or the Child Welfare Outcomes data site.  Back
3 The total child population and data on race/ethnicity represent estimates from the Census Bureau https://www.census.gov/data/tables.html . Child poverty data are from the Census Bureau's American Community Survey (ACS). Due to the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic, the 2020 poverty estimates are not available on data.census.gov. The 2020 poverty estimates are considered experimental and can be found on the ACS Experimental Data webpage: https://www.census.gov/programs-surveys/acs/data/experimental-data.html.  Back
4 For race/ethnicity tables, all races exclude children of Hispanic origin. The Child Welfare Outcomes Report data site http://cwoutcomes.acf.hhs.gov/cwodatasite provides alternative race/ethnicity breakdowns in which race and ethnicity are treated as two separate categories.  Back
5 A child victim is defined as a child for whom the state determined at least one maltreatment was substantiated or indicated. This includes a child who died of child abuse and neglect. This is a change from prior years when children with dispositions of alternative response victim were included as victims. The rate for foster care entry is per 1,000 children in the state population. Data on child maltreatment victims are from NCANDS. Data on foster care entry rate, children in foster care on 9/30, and children adopted are from AFCARS.  Back
6 The reporting population subject to the caseworker visits requirements includes all children under age 18 for at least the first day of the FY (October 1) who have been in foster care for at least one full calendar month during the FY. All states have the option of using an approved sampling procedure for the caseworker visits reporting requirement.  Back

B. Child Maltreatment Data (National Child Abuse and Neglect Data System [NCANDS]) 7

Overview Maltreatment Information 8
  2016 2017 2018 2019 2020
  Number Rate Number Rate Number Rate Number Rate Number Rate
Children subject of an investigated report alleging child maltreatment 62,808 33.6 per 1,000 61,754 33.0 per 1,000 49,156 26.3 per 1,000 49,338 26.4 per 1,000 44,902 24.1 per 1,000
Total child maltreatment victims 5,941 3.2 per 1,000 6,277 3.4 per 1,000 6,132 3.3 per 1,000 6,159 3.3 per 1,000 5,658 3.0 per 1,000
Child Fatalities 45 2.4 per 100,000 41 2.2 per 100,000 37 2.0 per 100,000 49 2.6 per 100,000 39 2.1 per 100,000
Age of Child Victims (%)
  2016 2017 2018 2019 2020
Under 1 year 11.9 13.0 12.2 12.2 12.8
1 year 8.1 6.9 7.5 7.2 7.2
2 years 7.5 7.3 7.6 7.1 7.7
3 years 6.9 6.6 6.6 6.6 6.5
4 years 6.1 6.4 6.2 6.1 5.6
5 years 6.2 6.0 6.2 6.0 5.6
6 years 5.5 5.3 5.3 5.7 5.4
7 years 5.6 5.8 5.5 4.9 5.1
8 years 5.3 5.0 4.7 4.9 4.8
9 years 5.0 5.1 5.1 4.9 4.7
10 years 4.6 4.7 5.2 4.6 4.6
11 years 4.0 4.2 4.2 4.5 4.7
12 years 4.2 4.2 4.5 4.7 4.8
13 years 3.6 4.0 4.5 4.5 4.2
14 years 4.1 3.7 3.9 4.2 4.5
15 years 3.8 4.0 4.0 3.8 3.9
16 years 3.3 3.5 2.9 3.6 3.4
17 years 2.6 2.3 2.6 2.4 2.7
18+ years <.1 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0
Missing data 1.5 2.0 1.5 2.0 1.7
Number 5,941 6,277 6,132 6,159 5,658
Race/Ethnicity of Child Victims (%)
  2016 2017 2018 2019 2020
Alaska Native / American Indian <.1 0.0 <.1 <.1 <.1
Asian 0.7 0.6 1.0 1.1 0.9
Black 29.1 24.9 25.5 25.4 23.9
Native Hawaiian / Other Pacific Islander 0.3 0.2 0.3 0.2 0.2
Hispanic (of any race) 10.8 10.5 11.2 12.5 11.8
White 50.2 53.0 51.8 50.3 53.2
Two or more races 5.3 6.9 6.4 6.7 6.3
Missing data 3.6 3.9 3.8 3.7 3.6
Number 5,941 6,277 6,132 6,159 5,658
Maltreatment Types of Child Victims (%) 9
  2016 2017 2018 2019 2020
Emotional abuse 1.3 1.4 1.5 1.1 1.7
Medical neglect 2.7 2.2 2.4 2.4 2.3
Neglect 64.9 66.9 68.3 67.0 68.9
Physical abuse 31.2 30.6 29.4 29.2 28.0
Sexual abuse 11.8 11.1 11.5 12.7 12.7
Sex trafficking 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 <.1
Missing data 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0
Other <.1 <.1 0.0 0.0 <.1
Number 5,941 6,277 6,132 6,159 5,658
Time to Investigation (in hours) 10
  2016 2017 2018 2019 2020
Mean 169.6 160.6 132.4 123.7 104.5
Median >48 but <72 >48 but <72 >24 but <48 >24 but <48 >24 but <48

7 The unique count of child victims counts a child only once regardless of the number of times he or she was found to be a victim during the reporting year.  Back
8 The rates for Child Protective Services responses and victims are per 1,000 children under age 18; for fatalities, the rate is per 100,000 children under age 18.  Back
9 These percentages are calculated against the number of unique victims. A child may have been the victim of more than one type of maltreatment, or the same type of maltreatment more than once. As a result, the total percentages both within and across maltreatment categories may exceed 100.  Back
10 Response time is defined as the time between the report of suspected maltreatment and the first face-to-face contact with the alleged victim or with another person who can provide information on the allegation.  Back

C. Characteristics of Children in Foster Care (Adoption and Foster Care Analysis and Reporting System [AFCARS] Foster Care File)

Overview Foster Care Information
  In Foster Care on 10/1 FY Entered Foster Care in FY Exited Foster Care in FY In Foster Care on 9/30 FY
  2016 2017 2018 2019 2020 2016 2017 2018 2019 2020 2016 2017 2018 2019 2020 2016 2017 2018 2019 2020
Total number 4,841 4,894 4,814 4,812 4,946 2,940 2,741 2,940 2,800 2,505 2,892 2,842 2,849 2,701 2,687 4,890 4,795 4,915 4,925 4,773
Median length of stay (months) 13.5 13.9 14.4 13.5 13.8 N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A 15.4 16.4 17.8 17.6 18.2 13.8 14.1 13.1 13.7 15.0
Age of Children in Foster Care (%)
  In Foster Care on 10/1 FY Entered Foster Care in FY Exited Foster Care in FY In Foster Care on 9/30 FY
  2016 2017 2018 2019 2020 2016 2017 2018 2019 2020 2016 2017 2018 2019 2020 2016 2017 2018 2019 2020
Under 1 year 5.0 5.6 5.4 5.2 5.7 16.6 16.6 15.4 15.9 16.9 4.7 4.6 4.2 3.9 4.1 5.7 5.4 5.7 5.8 5.4
1 year 5.3 6.9 6.7 6.1 6.4 7.0 5.9 5.7 6.2 5.7 5.6 7.2 6.9 6.8 7.2 6.9 6.8 6.3 6.5 6.7
2 years 6.0 5.4 5.8 5.9 5.4 6.3 6.1 6.0 5.1 4.7 6.9 7.6 6.9 7.4 6.2 5.4 5.9 6.1 5.4 5.4
3 years 5.4 5.7 4.5 5.0 4.6 4.9 4.6 4.6 5.3 5.4 5.6 6.2 5.2 5.6 4.7 5.7 4.6 5.2 4.7 5.1
4 years 4.6 4.9 4.7 4.5 4.7 4.8 4.2 4.8 4.0 5.1 5.6 5.3 4.8 5.0 5.2 4.9 4.7 4.5 4.7 4.9
5 years 4.1 3.8 4.1 4.2 4.8 3.8 4.0 4.0 4.8 4.3 5.2 4.6 4.6 4.1 4.6 3.9 4.2 4.2 4.8 4.8
6 years 4.8 4.0 4.1 4.3 4.1 4.2 4.0 4.4 4.5 3.4 4.7 4.0 3.5 4.0 4.2 4.0 4.1 4.4 4.1 4.2
7 years 4.3 4.1 3.9 4.3 4.4 4.1 4.2 2.9 4.1 4.0 4.8 3.9 3.1 4.2 4.2 4.1 3.9 4.3 4.5 3.9
8 years 4.4 4.4 3.9 3.9 4.2 3.9 3.9 3.9 4.0 3.6 3.5 4.0 3.3 3.2 4.1 4.4 4.0 4.0 4.3 4.4
9 years 4.0 4.0 4.3 3.7 4.0 3.9 3.5 3.7 3.7 3.6 3.7 4.3 3.7 3.3 3.7 4.0 4.3 3.7 4.1 4.0
10 years 4.1 4.5 3.8 4.7 4.0 3.7 3.3 4.4 4.0 3.3 3.3 3.5 3.6 3.8 3.3 4.5 3.8 4.8 4.1 3.9
11 years 3.9 4.2 4.3 4.1 4.6 3.0 4.2 3.5 3.8 3.5 2.9 4.5 3.5 3.4 4.0 4.2 4.4 4.1 4.7 4.1
12 years 4.0 4.3 4.1 4.1 4.2 4.2 3.9 4.1 4.0 4.4 3.1 3.2 3.5 3.1 3.9 4.3 4.1 4.1 4.3 4.5
13 years 5.1 4.7 4.7 4.6 4.8 4.1 4.6 5.2 4.9 5.0 3.1 2.6 3.1 3.4 3.2 4.7 4.8 4.9 4.9 4.9
14 years 6.0 5.8 5.8 5.7 5.7 5.6 5.3 4.8 5.8 4.7 3.5 3.9 3.8 3.0 3.9 5.9 5.9 5.9 5.9 5.5
15 years 7.4 7.2 7.0 6.7 6.8 7.1 7.0 7.1 5.6 6.1 4.3 4.2 4.1 3.9 4.0 7.2 7.0 6.8 6.8 6.4
16 years 9.9 8.6 7.9 8.5 7.7 6.1 7.6 7.3 6.5 6.7 5.1 5.9 4.2 4.0 4.2 8.7 8.2 8.7 7.8 7.9
17 years 11.3 10.3 9.6 8.9 8.5 6.8 6.4 5.6 4.8 5.0 6.1 5.2 5.2 5.1 5.0 10.7 10.3 9.2 9.4 8.8
18 years 0.4 1.6 5.3 5.5 5.3 0.0 0.6 1.6 1.9 2.5 17.8 12.5 12.5 12.0 10.6 0.8 3.5 3.1 3.2 4.3
19 years 0.0 0.0 <.1 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.7 0.9 1.7 0.5 2.5 10.0 10.8 9.8 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 <.1
20+ years 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 <.1 0.4 0.5 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 <.1 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.8
Missing data 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0
Race/Ethnicity of Children in Foster Care (%)
  In Foster Care on 10/1 FY Entered Foster Care in FY Exited Foster Care in FY In Foster Care on 9/30 FY
  2016 2017 2018 2019 2020 2016 2017 2018 2019 2020 2016 2017 2018 2019 2020 2016 2017 2018 2019 2020
Alaska Native / American Indian <.1 0.0 <.1 <.1 <.1 0.0 <.1 0.1 <.1 0.1 <.1 <.1 0.1 <.1 <.1 <.1 <.1 <.1 <.1 <.1
Asian 0.5 0.8 0.6 0.5 0.5 0.9 0.3 0.5 0.6 1.0 0.4 0.6 0.7 0.5 0.5 0.8 0.6 0.5 0.5 0.8
Black 31.7 29.7 29.2 27.8 27.3 26.1 26.7 24.1 26.6 24.0 29.8 27.3 26.0 27.3 25.9 29.5 29.4 28.0 27.3 26.4
Native Hawaiian / Other Pacific Islander 0.1 0.1 0.0 <.1 <.1 0.1 0.0 0.1 <.1 0.3 0.1 0.1 <.1 <.1 0.3 0.1 <.1 <.1 <.1 <.1
Hispanic (of any race) 9.7 9.2 9.9 10.2 10.9 8.5 10.6 9.6 10.6 10.3 9.4 9.9 10.2 10.0 10.8 9.1 9.7 9.6 10.6 10.6
White 47.4 49.6 49.7 51.1 50.5 53.0 52.2 55.3 51.0 52.5 50.5 51.2 51.7 51.1 51.2 48.9 50.1 51.9 51.0 51.1
Two or more races 9.5 9.7 9.3 9.2 9.8 9.8 8.8 8.4 9.9 10.1 8.9 10.1 9.3 9.4 10.0 10.1 9.0 8.8 9.5 9.8
Unknown 1.0 0.9 1.2 1.1 0.9 1.6 1.3 1.9 1.3 1.7 0.9 0.8 2.0 1.5 1.2 1.4 1.2 1.2 1.0 1.2
Missing data 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0

D. Characteristics of Children "Waiting for Adoption" 11 (AFCARS Foster Care File)

Children Waiting for Adoption
  2016 2017 2018 2019 2020
Total waiting children 1,886 1,826 1,766 1,934 1,967
Number of waiting children whose parents' rights have been terminated 1,322 1,307 1,091 1,236 1,243

11 There is no federal definition for a child waiting to be adopted. The definition used in the tables on this page includes children and youth through age 17 who have a goal of adoption and/or whose parents' parental rights have been terminated. It excludes children 16 years old and older whose parents' parental rights have been terminated and who have a goal of emancipation. A state's own definition may differ from that used here.  Back

Age of Children Waiting for Adoption (%) 12
  2016 2017 2018 2019 2020
Under 1 year 2.7 3.1 2.9 3.4 2.0
1 year 7.2 6.8 6.6 7.0 7.6
2 years 6.5 7.0 7.7 5.9 6.0
3 years 7.3 5.3 6.1 5.1 5.5
4 years 5.9 6.3 5.4 5.7 5.8
5 years 3.9 5.3 4.9 5.5 5.3
6 years 4.5 4.6 5.2 4.6 5.7
7 years 5.2 4.9 4.8 5.7 4.8
8 years 5.5 5.3 4.9 5.2 5.1
9 years 5.0 5.3 4.6 4.7 5.0
10 years 6.3 4.7 5.4 5.2 4.6
11 years 5.4 5.9 4.5 5.7 5.2
12 years 5.4 4.7 5.7 5.2 6.2
13 years 5.1 6.1 5.4 6.2 5.8
14 years 5.5 5.8 6.1 5.4 6.0
15 years 6.6 6.0 5.5 6.8 6.4
16 years 6.2 7.4 7.2 6.3 6.9
17 years 6.1 5.8 7.1 6.4 5.8

12 Children older than 17 years fall outside of the definition used to identify waiting children and are therefore excluded from this table.  Back

Race/Ethnicity of Children Waiting for Adoption (%)
  2016 2017 2018 2019 2020
Alaska Native / American Indian <.1 0.0 <.1 <.1 0.0
Asian 0.6 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.7
Black 30.5 28.8 29.4 27.4 26.0
Native Hawaiian / Other Pacific Islander 0.0 0.1 0.0 0.1 <.1
Hispanic (of any race) 9.2 9.7 9.8 10.5 9.3
White 47.8 49.6 49.4 51.0 51.8
Two or more races 10.7 10.6 10.3 9.6 11.0
Unknown 1.2 0.9 0.6 0.8 1.2
Missing data 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0

E. Characteristics of Children Adopted (AFCARS Adoption File)

Children Adopted
  2016 2017 2018 2019 2020
Total children adopted 627 801 879 769 844
Age of Children Adopted (%)
  2016 2017 2018 2019 2020
Under 1 year 1.0 0.6 1.3 1.2 0.8
1 year 7.7 9.7 10.4 10.0 11.3
2 years 11.5 10.4 10.6 13.9 11.7
3 years 10.4 10.1 8.6 9.8 6.0
4 years 9.4 9.1 8.4 7.8 7.3
5 years 9.1 7.0 6.9 6.4 7.5
6 years 5.9 5.0 6.0 5.9 6.0
7 years 7.7 5.0 4.7 6.0 6.2
8 years 4.8 5.1 5.1 3.5 7.0
9 years 5.7 6.9 6.7 4.9 4.5
10 years 4.1 5.2 5.0 4.3 4.6
11 years 3.2 6.5 4.0 5.2 4.7
12 years 3.3 3.6 4.3 3.1 4.4
13 years 3.2 2.6 4.6 5.3 3.4
14 years 3.3 4.2 3.6 2.7 4.7
15 years 2.7 2.1 3.6 4.2 3.9
16 years 3.0 3.1 2.8 2.6 3.0
17 years 2.4 2.4 2.6 2.6 2.5
18 years 1.6 1.2 0.7 0.7 0.4
19 years 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0
20+ years 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0
Race/Ethnicity of Children Adopted (%)
  2016 2017 2018 2019 2020
Alaska Native / American Indian 0.0 0.0 0.2 0.0 0.0
Asian 0.2 0.9 0.2 0.1 0.2
Black 25.2 27.8 22.1 24.2 23.6
Native Hawaiian / Other Pacific Islander 0.5 0.0 0.0 0.3 0.0
Hispanic (of any race) 7.2 9.1 8.3 7.7 9.2
White 51.8 50.3 53.5 53.8 53.9
Two or more races 15.0 11.9 15.6 13.8 12.9
Unknown 0.2 0.0 0.1 0.1 0.1
Missing data 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0

Virginia [Outcomes Data]

Reduce Recurrence of Child Abuse and/or Neglect (NCANDS)

Recurrence of Maltreatment Within 12 Months (%)
  2015-2016 2016-2017 2017-2018 2018-2019 2019-2020
Children without a recurrence 96.5 96.7 95.7 95.5 95.6
Children with one or more recurrences 3.5 3.3 4.3 4.5 4.4
Number 5,805 5,885 6,139 6,011 5,960

Reduce the Incidence of Child Abuse and/or Neglect in Foster Care (NCANDS and AFCARS Foster Care File)

2.1 Maltreatment in Foster Care (%)
  2016 2017 2018 2019 2020
Children maltreated while in foster care 0.26 0.20 0.13 0.25 0.19
Children not maltreated while in foster care 99.74 99.80 99.87 99.75 99.81
Number 7,782 7,635 7,754 7,612 7,451

Increase Permanency for Children in Foster Care (AFCARS Foster Care File)

3.1 Exits of Children From Foster Care (%)
  2016 2017 2018 2019 2020
Adoption 22.5 29.3 31.0 28.8 31.4
Guardianship 0.0 0.0 <.1 1.8 2.1
Reunification 46.9 49.7 41.0 44.6 43.7
Other 22.0 17.8 25.8 23.8 21.5
Missing data 8.7 3.2 2.2 1.0 1.3
Number 2,892 2,842 2,849 2,701 2,687
Exits of Children With a Diagnosed Disability (%)
  2016 2017 2018 2019 2020
Adoption 26.0 35.8 31.3 30.2 29.7
Guardianship 0.0 0.0 0.1 1.4 1.7
Reunification 30.7 32.7 27.5 29.6 32.8
Other 34.7 28.5 38.3 37.5 34.1
Missing data 8.6 3.0 2.8 1.4 1.6
Number 801 779 848 795 871
Exits of Children Older than Age 12 at Entry Into Foster Care (%)
  2016 2017 2018 2019 2020
Adoption 3.2 5.0 4.9 5.6 5.5
Guardianship 0.0 0.0 0.1 2.1 1.3
Reunification 33.5 44.7 30.2 29.5 34.8
Other 53.3 47.5 62.4 62.2 57.2
Missing data 9.9 2.8 2.3 0.5 1.3
Number 956 834 982 921 874
Exits to Emancipation (%)
  2016 2017 2018 2019 2020
Children age 12 or younger at entry 11.6 14.8 11.2 10.0 10.7
Children older than 12 at entry 88.4 85.2 88.8 90.0 89.0
Missing data 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.4
Number 536 427 642 607 544
Exits by Race/Ethnicity (%)
  Alaska Native / American Indian Asian Black (non-Hispanic)
  2016 2017 2018 2019 2020 2016 2017 2018 2019 2020 2016 2017 2018 2019 2020
Adoption 0.0 0.0 66.7 0.0 50.0 0.0 44.4 10.5 7.1 14.3 18.8 29.2 26.2 24.3 27.2
Guardianship 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 7.1 0.0 0.0 0.0 2.4 2.2
Reunification 0.0 100.0 0.0 100.0 0.0 83.3 27.8 57.9 71.4 64.3 48.9 48.0 40.4 45.5 43.7
Other 100.0 0.0 33.3 0.0 50.0 16.7 27.8 31.6 21.4 14.3 26.0 21.3 31.2 27.6 26.2
Missing data 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 6.3 1.5 2.3 0.1 0.7
Number 1 1 3 2 2 12 18 19 14 14 861 775 741 738 695
Exits by Race/Ethnicity (%)
  Native Hawaiian/Other Pac. Is. Hispanic (of any race) White (non-Hispanic)
  2016 2017 2018 2019 2020 2016 2017 2018 2019 2020 2016 2017 2018 2019 2020
Adoption 25.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 21.2 27.5 28.3 21.6 31.6 23.0 29.0 31.8 31.3 32.8
Guardianship 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.3 1.5 1.4 0.0 0.0 <.1 1.5 2.2
Reunification 50.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 87.5 46.2 48.2 39.3 45.4 38.5 46.5 50.5 42.0 44.2 44.6
Other 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 12.5 27.5 20.4 31.7 31.2 26.8 19.2 16.8 23.8 21.7 19.2
Missing data 25.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 5.1 3.9 0.3 0.4 1.7 11.2 3.7 2.3 1.4 1.2
Number 4 3 1 1 8 273 280 290 269 291 1,460 1,456 1,473 1,381 1,377
Exits by Race/Ethnicity (%)
  Unable to Determine Two or More Races Missing Data
  2016 2017 2018 2019 2020 2016 2017 2018 2019 2020 2016 2017 2018 2019 2020
Adoption 8.0 27.3 20.7 9.8 22.6 35.9 32.4 46.2 41.2 37.5 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0
Guardianship 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 2.4 2.2 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0
Reunification 68.0 31.8 55.2 61.0 45.2 39.1 54.0 34.8 38.4 42.8 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0
Other 20.0 31.8 13.8 26.8 19.4 18.4 9.8 17.0 16.5 16.4 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0
Missing data 4.0 9.1 10.3 2.4 12.9 6.6 3.8 1.9 1.6 1.1 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0
Number 25 22 58 41 31 256 287 264 255 269 0 0 0 0 0

Reduce Time to Reunification Without Increasing Reentry (AFCARS Foster Care File)

Time to Reunification (%)
  2016 2017 2018 2019 2020
Less than 12 mos. 58.6 59.5 62.5 60.4 60.3
At least 12 mos., but less than 24 mos. 33.9 31.4 26.5 28.7 29.7
At least 24 mos., but less than 36 mos. 5.8 6.9 7.7 8.1 7.7
At least 36 mos., but less than 48 mos. 1.0 1.4 1.5 1.5 1.3
48 or more mos. 0.6 0.8 1.8 1.1 0.7
Missing data 0.2 0.0 <.1 0.2 0.3
Number 1,355 1,413 1,167 1,204 1,175
Children Reentering Foster Care (%)
  2016 2017 2018 2019 2020
Children entering care for the first time 89.1 90.1 87.0 85.8 85.7
Children reentering care within 12 mos. of a prior episode 4.1 4.5 6.8 7.0 6.2
Children reentering care more than 12 mos. after a prior episode 6.6 4.9 5.7 6.2 6.5
Missing data 0.2 0.5 0.5 1.1 1.5
Number 2,940 2,741 2,940 2,800 2,505

Reduce Time in Foster Care to Adoption (AFCARS Foster Care File)

Time to Adoption (%)
  2016 2017 2018 2019 2020
Less than 12 mos. 3.4 2.2 3.9 3.6 2.5
At least 12 mos., but less than 24 mos. 30.1 30.2 29.9 31.2 33.3
At least 24 mos., but less than 36 mos. 36.1 34.5 35.9 37.5 36.4
At least 36 mos., but less than 48 mos. 15.5 20.9 16.2 17.6 17.0
48 or more mos. 14.9 12.3 14.2 10.1 10.8
Missing data 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0
Number 651 832 883 779 843

Increase Placement Stability (AFCARS Foster Care File)

Number of Placements by Time in Care (%)
  In Care Less Than 12 Months In Care at Least 12 months but Less Than 24 months In Care for 24 Months or Longer Time in Care Missing or Out of Range
  2016 2017 2018 2019 2020 2016 2017 2018 2019 2020 2016 2017 2018 2019 2020 2016 2017 2018 2019 2020
Children with 2 or fewer placements 85.1 84.9 83.5 82.3 86.8 65.0 65.6 64.7 62.7 65.2 40.2 40.5 39.8 37.6 37.5 66.7 100.0 89.7 89.5 93.5
Children with 3 or more placements 14.8 15.0 16.3 15.7 13.1 34.9 34.4 35.3 37.1 34.7 59.6 59.5 60.2 62.4 62.5 0.0 0.0 2.6 5.3 2.2
Missing Placement setting counts 0.1 0.1 0.2 1.9 0.1 <.1 0.0 0.0 0.1 <.1 0.1 0.0 0.0 <.1 0.0 33.3 0.0 7.7 5.3 4.3
Total number 3,375 3,190 3,320 3,114 2,813 2,166 2,142 2,053 2,182 2,218 2,232 2,300 2,342 2,259 2,374 9 3 39 57 46

Reduce Placement of Young Children in Group Homes or Institutions (AFCARS Foster Care File)

Most Recent Placement Settings of Children Who Entered Care During the Fiscal Year and Were Age 12 or Younger at the Time of This Placement (%)
  2016 2017 2018 2019 2020
Group homes 0.9 3.6 3.7 3.6 2.9
Institution 3.9 2.3 0.5 0.6 0.4
Other settings 95.2 94.1 95.8 95.4 96.6
Missing data 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.5 0.2
Number 2,054 1,864 1,968 1,923 1,684