Texas

Texas [Context Data]

A. Context Statistics 1 2

General Child Population (Census Bureau) 3
  2016 2017 2018 2019 2020
Total children under 18 years 7,320,809 7,365,787 7,382,686 7,406,777 7,435,132
Race/ethnicity (%) 4
Alaska Native / American Indian 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.2
Asian 4.3 4.5 4.6 4.7 4.7
Black 11.8 11.9 11.9 12.0 12.1
Native Hawaiian / Other Pacific Islander <.1 <.1 <.1 <.1 <.1
Hispanic (of any race) 49.1 49.1 49.1 49.2 49.2
White 32.0 31.6 31.4 31.1 30.9
Two or more races 2.5 2.6 2.6 2.7 2.8
Child population in poverty (%) 22.4 20.9 21.1 19.2 19.0
Child Welfare Summary 5
  2016 2017 2018 2019 2020
Child maltreatment victims 57,374 61,506 63,271 64,093 65,116
Foster care entry rate 2.6 2.7 2.8 2.5 2.2
Children in foster care on 9/30 30,738 32,150 32,960 31,427 29,991
Children adopted 5,723 5,361 5,748 6,105 5,249
Caseworker Visits 6
  2016 2017 2018 2019 2020
Children receiving monthly visits (%) 97 98 99 99 99
Numerator 327,614 344,159 362,204 355,643 337,878
Denominator 338,724 351,350 367,606 360,788 342,314
Children receiving visits in the home (%) 86 88 89 89 91
Numerator 283,308 304,523 322,480 317,064 308,415
Denominator 327,614 344,159 362,204 355,643 337,878

1 The source data for each table is indicated in parentheses for each section. A calendar year is the basis for data from the Census Bureau. Most of the other data on these pages are from the National Child Abuse and Neglect Data System (NCANDS) or the Adoption and Foster Care Analysis and Reporting System (AFCARS) and are based on the federal fiscal year, October 1 through September 30.  Back
2 Data that did not meet the quality standards for inclusion in the report are represented as DQ*. Incomplete data excluded from inclusion in the report are represented as --. For additional information on the data quality thresholds for the Child Welfare Outcomes Report, please reference the full report or the Child Welfare Outcomes data site.  Back
3 The total child population and data on race/ethnicity represent estimates from the Census Bureau https://www.census.gov/data/tables.html . Child poverty data are from the Census Bureau's American Community Survey (ACS). Due to the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic, the 2020 poverty estimates are not available on data.census.gov. The 2020 poverty estimates are considered experimental and can be found on the ACS Experimental Data webpage: https://www.census.gov/programs-surveys/acs/data/experimental-data.html.  Back
4 For race/ethnicity tables, all races exclude children of Hispanic origin. The Child Welfare Outcomes Report data site http://cwoutcomes.acf.hhs.gov/cwodatasite provides alternative race/ethnicity breakdowns in which race and ethnicity are treated as two separate categories.  Back
5 A child victim is defined as a child for whom the state determined at least one maltreatment was substantiated or indicated. This includes a child who died of child abuse and neglect. This is a change from prior years when children with dispositions of alternative response victim were included as victims. The rate for foster care entry is per 1,000 children in the state population. Data on child maltreatment victims are from NCANDS. Data on foster care entry rate, children in foster care on 9/30, and children adopted are from AFCARS.  Back
6 The reporting population subject to the caseworker visits requirements includes all children under age 18 for at least the first day of the FY (October 1) who have been in foster care for at least one full calendar month during the FY. All states have the option of using an approved sampling procedure for the caseworker visits reporting requirement.  Back

B. Child Maltreatment Data (National Child Abuse and Neglect Data System [NCANDS]) 7

Overview Maltreatment Information 8
  2016 2017 2018 2019 2020
  Number Rate Number Rate Number Rate Number Rate Number Rate
Children subject of an investigated report alleging child maltreatment 269,952 36.9 per 1,000 283,764 38.5 per 1,000 281,562 38.1 per 1,000 278,004 37.5 per 1,000 263,493 35.4 per 1,000
Total child maltreatment victims 57,374 7.8 per 1,000 61,506 8.4 per 1,000 63,271 8.6 per 1,000 64,093 8.7 per 1,000 65,116 8.8 per 1,000
Child Fatalities 217 3.0 per 100,000 186 2.5 per 100,000 200 2.7 per 100,000 229 3.1 per 100,000 255 3.4 per 100,000
Age of Child Victims (%)
  2016 2017 2018 2019 2020
Under 1 year 17.3 17.7 18.0 18.1 18.7
1 year 8.4 8.6 8.6 8.5 8.9
2 years 8.0 7.9 8.1 8.1 8.1
3 years 7.2 7.1 7.4 7.5 7.6
4 years 6.8 6.8 7.1 7.2 7.1
5 years 6.6 6.4 6.5 6.7 6.9
6 years 5.9 5.6 5.4 5.2 5.2
7 years 5.5 5.4 5.0 4.7 4.5
8 years 4.8 5.0 4.8 4.4 4.2
9 years 4.7 4.7 4.4 4.3 4.1
10 years 4.0 4.2 4.2 4.1 3.9
11 years 3.7 3.6 3.8 3.8 3.6
12 years 3.4 3.6 3.5 3.6 3.7
13 years 3.3 3.3 3.2 3.3 3.4
14 years 3.2 3.1 3.0 3.2 3.1
15 years 2.9 2.9 2.7 2.8 2.9
16 years 2.5 2.5 2.4 2.5 2.4
17 years 1.2 1.3 1.3 1.4 1.3
18+ years <.1 <.1 <.1 <.1 <.1
Missing data 0.4 0.4 0.4 0.4 0.4
Number 57,374 61,506 63,271 64,093 65,116
Race/Ethnicity of Child Victims (%)
  2016 2017 2018 2019 2020
Alaska Native / American Indian <.1 0.1 <.1 0.1 <.1
Asian 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.6 0.5
Black 17.4 18.9 20.3 20.2 20.7
Native Hawaiian / Other Pacific Islander <.1 0.1 <.1 0.1 0.1
Hispanic (of any race) 43.6 44.4 44.1 45.2 45.8
White 32.4 30.1 29.3 28.3 27.2
Two or more races 3.8 3.4 3.5 3.8 4.0
Missing data 2.2 2.5 2.2 1.6 1.5
Number 57,374 61,506 63,271 64,093 65,116
Maltreatment Types of Child Victims (%) 9
  2016 2017 2018 2019 2020
Emotional abuse 0.6 0.6 0.6 0.6 0.5
Medical neglect 2.1 1.9 1.9 1.8 1.5
Neglect 85.0 85.3 86.2 86.1 87.6
Physical abuse 14.6 14.4 13.1 12.3 11.5
Sexual abuse 10.0 10.0 10.4 10.9 10.2
Sex trafficking 0.0 0.0 0.0 <.1 <.1
Missing data <.1 <.1 0.0 0.0 <.1
Other <.1 <.1 0.0 <.1 <.1
Number 57,374 61,506 63,271 64,093 65,116
Time to Investigation (in hours) 10
  2016 2017 2018 2019 2020
Mean 64.5 57.9 49.4 47.8 54.4
Median >24 but <48 >24 but <48 >24 but <48 >24 but <48 >24 but <48

7 The unique count of child victims counts a child only once regardless of the number of times he or she was found to be a victim during the reporting year.  Back
8 The rates for Child Protective Services responses and victims are per 1,000 children under age 18; for fatalities, the rate is per 100,000 children under age 18.  Back
9 These percentages are calculated against the number of unique victims. A child may have been the victim of more than one type of maltreatment, or the same type of maltreatment more than once. As a result, the total percentages both within and across maltreatment categories may exceed 100.  Back
10 Response time is defined as the time between the report of suspected maltreatment and the first face-to-face contact with the alleged victim or with another person who can provide information on the allegation.  Back

C. Characteristics of Children in Foster Care (Adoption and Foster Care Analysis and Reporting System [AFCARS] Foster Care File)

Overview Foster Care Information
  In Foster Care on 10/1 FY Entered Foster Care in FY Exited Foster Care in FY In Foster Care on 9/30 FY
  2016 2017 2018 2019 2020 2016 2017 2018 2019 2020 2016 2017 2018 2019 2020 2016 2017 2018 2019 2020
Total number 29,770 30,491 31,864 32,642 31,108 19,193 19,840 20,497 18,455 16,434 18,227 18,183 19,403 19,673 17,552 30,738 32,150 32,960 31,427 29,991
Median length of stay (months) 11.7 10.4 10.7 10.8 11.3 N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A 16.2 15.8 15.6 16.1 16.8 10.4 10.6 10.7 11.4 12.1
Age of Children in Foster Care (%)
  In Foster Care on 10/1 FY Entered Foster Care in FY Exited Foster Care in FY In Foster Care on 9/30 FY
  2016 2017 2018 2019 2020 2016 2017 2018 2019 2020 2016 2017 2018 2019 2020 2016 2017 2018 2019 2020
Under 1 year 7.5 8.6 8.6 8.7 8.2 21.0 21.1 21.1 21.3 22.5 3.1 3.1 3.2 3.0 2.4 8.6 8.6 8.7 8.2 8.3
1 year 9.8 10.3 10.6 10.6 10.6 9.4 9.2 9.3 8.9 9.1 10.4 11.5 11.8 11.8 11.3 10.3 10.6 10.5 10.6 10.7
2 years 8.3 8.4 8.6 8.7 8.4 8.1 8.0 8.2 7.9 7.5 10.6 10.9 10.9 11.5 11.1 8.4 8.6 8.6 8.4 8.6
3 years 7.1 7.2 7.2 7.4 7.3 6.9 6.9 6.9 6.9 7.0 8.4 8.2 8.5 8.6 8.9 7.2 7.2 7.4 7.3 7.0
4 years 6.0 6.3 6.4 6.6 6.6 6.3 6.4 6.6 6.4 6.1 6.8 7.4 7.3 7.8 7.4 6.3 6.4 6.6 6.5 6.3
5 years 6.0 5.8 5.8 5.7 5.7 5.8 5.5 5.5 5.8 5.6 6.5 6.2 6.7 6.4 6.8 5.8 5.8 5.7 5.7 5.9
6 years 5.8 5.5 5.4 5.2 5.5 5.7 5.1 5.1 5.1 5.1 6.1 5.8 6.0 5.9 5.8 5.6 5.3 5.2 5.5 5.2
7 years 5.5 5.3 5.1 4.9 4.8 5.1 5.1 4.7 4.5 4.4 6.1 5.6 5.4 5.3 5.0 5.3 5.2 4.9 4.8 5.1
8 years 5.1 5.1 5.0 4.8 4.6 4.5 4.4 4.6 4.1 4.0 5.3 5.2 4.9 4.7 4.8 5.1 5.0 4.8 4.6 4.3
9 years 4.8 4.7 4.6 4.6 4.4 4.3 4.1 4.0 4.0 3.7 4.8 4.6 4.6 4.5 4.4 4.7 4.6 4.6 4.4 4.2
10 years 4.3 4.2 4.4 4.3 4.2 3.5 4.0 3.9 3.7 3.5 4.4 4.4 4.2 4.3 4.2 4.2 4.4 4.3 4.3 4.1
11 years 4.1 4.0 4.1 4.1 4.2 3.3 3.5 3.6 3.6 3.7 3.7 4.0 3.9 3.8 3.8 4.0 4.0 4.1 4.2 4.2
12 years 3.7 3.7 3.9 4.0 4.0 3.1 3.2 3.2 3.5 3.4 3.4 3.3 3.4 3.5 3.3 3.7 3.9 3.9 4.0 4.1
13 years 3.9 3.7 3.7 3.8 4.0 2.9 3.0 3.3 3.4 3.5 2.9 2.8 2.9 3.2 3.3 3.6 3.6 3.8 4.0 4.1
14 years 4.0 3.9 3.7 3.9 4.1 2.9 3.2 3.0 3.2 3.3 2.9 2.8 2.7 2.8 3.0 3.9 3.7 3.9 4.1 4.2
15 years 4.3 4.2 4.2 3.9 4.1 3.1 3.2 3.1 3.1 3.4 2.6 2.6 2.7 2.5 2.7 4.2 4.2 3.9 4.1 4.3
16 years 4.7 4.5 4.3 4.3 4.5 2.8 2.8 2.8 3.0 2.9 2.8 2.8 2.7 2.5 2.7 4.4 4.3 4.3 4.5 4.5
17 years 4.5 4.3 4.0 4.0 4.3 1.2 1.4 1.2 1.5 1.4 2.5 2.5 2.2 2.2 2.4 4.3 4.1 4.0 4.3 4.4
18 years 0.4 0.3 0.3 0.3 0.3 <.1 <.1 <.1 <.1 0.0 6.3 6.0 5.6 5.6 6.7 0.4 0.3 0.3 0.4 0.3
19 years 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.2 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.2 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.2 0.1 0.1 0.2 0.2
20+ years <.1 <.1 <.1 <.1 <.1 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 <.1 <.1 <.1 <.1 <.1 <.1 <.1 <.1 <.1 0.1
Missing data 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 <.1 <.1 <.1 <.1 <.1 0.0 0.0 <.1 <.1 <.1
Race/Ethnicity of Children in Foster Care (%)
  In Foster Care on 10/1 FY Entered Foster Care in FY Exited Foster Care in FY In Foster Care on 9/30 FY
  2016 2017 2018 2019 2020 2016 2017 2018 2019 2020 2016 2017 2018 2019 2020 2016 2017 2018 2019 2020
Alaska Native / American Indian 0.1 <.1 <.1 <.1 0.1 <.1 <.1 <.1 0.1 0.1 <.1 <.1 <.1 <.1 <.1 <.1 <.1 <.1 0.1 0.2
Asian 0.2 0.3 0.2 0.3 0.3 0.3 0.3 0.2 0.3 0.2 0.3 0.3 0.2 0.3 0.3 0.3 0.2 0.2 0.3 0.2
Black 20.8 21.0 21.0 22.5 22.5 19.2 18.7 21.4 19.6 19.9 19.0 18.4 19.2 19.9 20.3 20.9 21.0 22.4 22.4 22.4
Native Hawaiian / Other Pacific Islander <.1 <.1 <.1 <.1 0.1 <.1 <.1 <.1 0.1 0.1 <.1 0.1 <.1 <.1 <.1 <.1 <.1 <.1 0.1 0.2
Hispanic (of any race) 42.1 41.7 42.5 41.9 41.4 41.2 42.0 40.6 41.5 42.5 42.5 41.6 42.5 42.9 42.3 41.2 41.9 41.2 41.0 41.5
White 30.8 30.8 29.9 29.0 29.3 32.9 32.2 31.3 31.9 31.1 32.1 32.9 31.8 30.5 30.7 31.3 30.5 29.6 29.7 29.5
Two or more races 5.0 5.1 4.8 5.0 5.2 4.5 4.5 4.6 5.2 4.9 4.8 5.3 4.6 4.9 5.2 4.8 4.6 4.8 5.2 5.1
Unknown 0.8 1.1 1.3 1.1 0.9 1.8 2.2 1.7 1.2 1.0 1.1 1.3 1.4 1.3 1.1 1.3 1.6 1.5 1.1 0.8
Missing data 0.0 <.1 <.1 0.1 <.1 <.1 <.1 <.1 <.1 <.1 0.0 <.1 <.1 <.1 <.1 <.1 <.1 <.1 0.1 <.1

D. Characteristics of Children "Waiting for Adoption" 11 (AFCARS Foster Care File)

Children Waiting for Adoption
  2016 2017 2018 2019 2020
Total waiting children 12,377 13,443 13,822 12,932 12,319
Number of waiting children whose parents' rights have been terminated 8,330 8,549 8,888 8,578 7,730

11 There is no federal definition for a child waiting to be adopted. The definition used in the tables on this page includes children and youth through age 17 who have a goal of adoption and/or whose parents' parental rights have been terminated. It excludes children 16 years old and older whose parents' parental rights have been terminated and who have a goal of emancipation. A state's own definition may differ from that used here.  Back

Age of Children Waiting for Adoption (%) 12
  2016 2017 2018 2019 2020
Under 1 year 4.7 5.6 5.7 4.9 4.9
1 year 10.4 11.5 11.8 11.9 11.7
2 years 8.6 8.7 8.9 8.4 8.6
3 years 6.7 6.9 7.4 6.8 6.6
4 years 6.1 6.3 6.2 6.1 5.9
5 years 5.6 5.5 5.5 5.4 5.4
6 years 5.3 5.2 5.1 5.2 4.7
7 years 5.4 5.0 4.9 4.8 5.2
8 years 5.0 5.2 4.7 4.7 4.4
9 years 5.0 4.7 5.0 4.8 4.6
10 years 4.9 4.8 4.5 4.7 4.5
11 years 4.4 4.4 4.6 4.6 4.7
12 years 4.6 4.2 4.4 4.6 4.8
13 years 4.4 4.6 4.4 4.7 5.2
14 years 5.0 4.5 4.7 4.8 5.1
15 years 5.3 5.2 4.8 5.2 5.0
16 years 5.0 4.5 4.6 5.0 5.3
17 years 3.6 3.1 2.9 3.3 3.5

12 Children older than 17 years fall outside of the definition used to identify waiting children and are therefore excluded from this table.  Back

Race/Ethnicity of Children Waiting for Adoption (%)
  2016 2017 2018 2019 2020
Alaska Native / American Indian <.1 <.1 0.1 <.1 0.2
Asian 0.2 0.3 0.2 0.2 0.2
Black 22.5 23.0 22.0 22.3 21.9
Native Hawaiian / Other Pacific Islander <.1 <.1 <.1 <.1 0.2
Hispanic (of any race) 40.8 41.9 42.4 42.9 42.1
White 30.1 28.7 29.2 28.0 29.6
Two or more races 5.3 4.7 4.6 5.4 5.0
Unknown 0.9 1.3 1.4 1.1 0.8
Missing data 0.0 <.1 <.1 0.1 0.1

E. Characteristics of Children Adopted (AFCARS Adoption File)

Children Adopted
  2016 2017 2018 2019 2020
Total children adopted 5,723 5,361 5,748 6,105 5,249
Age of Children Adopted (%)
  2016 2017 2018 2019 2020
Under 1 year 1.6 1.0 1.1 1.0 1.1
1 year 13.7 14.9 15.8 15.9 15.0
2 years 16.2 16.2 16.1 16.6 16.8
3 years 10.7 10.2 10.5 10.4 10.6
4 years 8.1 8.6 8.6 8.8 8.0
5 years 6.9 6.7 7.5 6.6 7.6
6 years 6.6 6.5 6.6 6.4 6.1
7 years 6.2 5.5 5.6 5.7 5.0
8 years 5.4 5.7 4.3 4.4 4.9
9 years 4.6 4.2 4.5 4.3 4.5
10 years 4.2 4.1 4.0 4.3 3.9
11 years 3.6 3.8 3.4 3.3 3.7
12 years 3.0 3.0 3.0 3.2 3.0
13 years 2.4 2.4 2.3 2.7 2.7
14 years 1.9 2.2 2.1 2.0 2.3
15 years 1.7 1.8 1.7 1.5 1.6
16 years 1.6 1.4 1.6 1.5 1.7
17 years 1.2 1.5 1.3 1.4 1.4
18 years 0.4 0.1 0.2 0.1 0.2
19 years 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0
20+ years 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0
Race/Ethnicity of Children Adopted (%)
  2016 2017 2018 2019 2020
Alaska Native / American Indian <.1 0.1 0.1 <.1 <.1
Asian 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.2
Black 17.0 17.5 18.1 18.0 18.7
Native Hawaiian / Other Pacific Islander <.1 <.1 0.1 <.1 0.0
Hispanic (of any race) 44.9 42.3 44.9 44.3 44.2
White 31.6 32.2 30.0 30.6 29.9
Two or more races 5.2 6.6 5.5 5.5 5.8
Unknown 1.0 1.0 1.1 1.1 1.1
Missing data 0.0 0.0 0.0 <.1 0.0

Texas [Outcomes Data]

Reduce Recurrence of Child Abuse and/or Neglect (NCANDS)

Recurrence of Maltreatment Within 12 Months (%)
  2015-2016 2016-2017 2017-2018 2018-2019 2019-2020
Children without a recurrence 95.1 94.6 94.3 94.5 94.5
Children with one or more recurrences 4.9 5.4 5.7 5.5 5.5
Number 60,894 58,473 60,357 64,031 63,867

Reduce the Incidence of Child Abuse and/or Neglect in Foster Care (NCANDS and AFCARS Foster Care File)

2.1 Maltreatment in Foster Care (%)
  2016 2017 2018 2019 2020
Children maltreated while in foster care 0.31 0.27 0.23 0.24 0.44
Children not maltreated while in foster care 99.69 99.73 99.77 99.76 99.56
Number 48,963 50,331 52,361 51,097 47,543

Increase Permanency for Children in Foster Care (AFCARS Foster Care File)

3.1 Exits of Children From Foster Care (%)
  2016 2017 2018 2019 2020
Adoption 31.3 29.4 29.6 31.0 29.9
Guardianship 23.4 26.7 25.5 23.1 23.3
Reunification 38.2 36.8 38.4 39.4 39.3
Other 7.1 7.2 6.4 6.5 7.6
Missing data 0.0 <.1 <.1 <.1 0.0
Number 18,227 18,183 19,403 19,673 17,552
Exits of Children With a Diagnosed Disability (%)
  2016 2017 2018 2019 2020
Adoption 37.7 37.6 38.6 38.2 37.5
Guardianship 14.8 15.1 15.9 14.8 14.6
Reunification 25.1 25.0 24.9 27.6 24.4
Other 22.4 22.3 20.6 19.3 23.5
Missing data 0.0 0.0 0.0 <.1 0.0
Number 2,793 2,550 2,674 3,004 2,690
Exits of Children Older than Age 12 at Entry Into Foster Care (%)
  2016 2017 2018 2019 2020
Adoption 7.5 7.3 7.4 7.9 6.8
Guardianship 18.2 19.9 19.7 19.2 19.0
Reunification 38.6 35.4 36.0 35.9 33.6
Other 35.7 37.4 36.5 36.6 40.6
Missing data 0.0 0.0 0.4 0.4 0.0
Number 2,420 2,468 2,518 2,515 2,498
Exits to Emancipation (%)
  2016 2017 2018 2019 2020
Children age 12 or younger at entry 32.5 26.3 24.4 24.6 20.9
Children older than 12 at entry 67.5 73.7 75.6 75.4 79.1
Missing data 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0
Number 1,210 1,164 1,148 1,163 1,230
Exits by Race/Ethnicity (%)
  Alaska Native / American Indian Asian Black (non-Hispanic)
  2016 2017 2018 2019 2020 2016 2017 2018 2019 2020 2016 2017 2018 2019 2020
Adoption 29.4 54.5 53.3 46.2 21.4 20.4 16.7 20.5 19.3 22.9 28.0 27.8 27.9 28.2 27.6
Guardianship 23.5 9.1 13.3 7.7 14.3 18.4 13.3 22.7 8.8 10.4 27.5 29.2 29.6 25.8 26.8
Reunification 41.2 36.4 20.0 15.4 28.6 55.1 60.0 50.0 63.2 54.2 35.7 33.7 34.6 38.3 36.7
Other 5.9 0.0 13.3 30.8 35.7 6.1 10.0 6.8 8.8 12.5 8.8 9.3 7.8 7.6 8.9
Missing data 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 <.1 <.1 <.1 0.0
Number 17 11 15 13 14 49 60 44 57 48 3,468 3,350 3,725 3,908 3,564
Exits by Race/Ethnicity (%)
  Native Hawaiian/Other Pac. Is. Hispanic (of any race) White (non-Hispanic)
  2016 2017 2018 2019 2020 2016 2017 2018 2019 2020 2016 2017 2018 2019 2020
Adoption 14.3 21.1 66.7 42.9 0.0 33.0 29.9 31.2 32.0 31.2 30.9 28.8 27.9 31.1 29.3
Guardianship 7.1 10.5 22.2 28.6 28.6 21.4 25.6 23.6 21.7 22.2 23.2 26.8 25.3 23.3 23.0
Reunification 78.6 68.4 0.0 21.4 57.1 38.9 37.6 39.0 40.3 40.2 38.7 37.5 40.6 39.1 39.3
Other 0.0 0.0 11.1 7.1 14.3 6.7 6.9 6.0 6.0 6.4 7.2 7.0 6.2 6.5 8.3
Missing data 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 <.1 <.1 0.1 0.0 0.0 0.0 <.1 0.0 0.0
Number 14 19 9 14 7 7,746 7,558 8,252 8,448 7,428 5,853 5,978 6,171 6,006 5,380
Exits by Race/Ethnicity (%)
  Unable to Determine Two or More Races Missing Data
  2016 2017 2018 2019 2020 2016 2017 2018 2019 2020 2016 2017 2018 2019 2020
Adoption 27.8 22.6 22.1 26.5 30.3 33.9 36.7 34.7 34.5 31.9 0.0 0.0 0.0 11.1 0.0
Guardianship 36.4 36.0 29.5 28.5 19.0 23.5 24.8 26.9 23.4 22.1 0.0 0.0 20.0 11.1 12.5
Reunification 34.8 38.9 45.2 41.9 46.7 37.3 33.7 32.2 36.2 39.3 0.0 0.0 0.0 22.2 25.0
Other 1.0 2.5 3.2 3.2 4.1 5.3 4.8 6.2 5.9 6.6 0.0 100.0 80.0 55.6 62.5
Missing data 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0
Number 198 239 281 253 195 882 964 901 965 908 0 4 5 9 8

Reduce Time to Reunification Without Increasing Reentry (AFCARS Foster Care File)

Time to Reunification (%)
  2016 2017 2018 2019 2020
Less than 12 mos. 52.9 51.3 52.3 48.8 45.7
At least 12 mos., but less than 24 mos. 41.5 43.5 43.4 46.7 49.4
At least 24 mos., but less than 36 mos. 2.8 2.7 2.5 2.4 3.1
At least 36 mos., but less than 48 mos. 1.2 0.8 0.6 1.0 0.9
48 or more mos. 1.4 1.4 1.0 1.0 0.8
Missing data 0.2 0.3 0.1 0.1 <.1
Number 6,959 6,686 7,458 7,747 6,894
Children Reentering Foster Care (%)
  2016 2017 2018 2019 2020
Children entering care for the first time 89.5 88.4 88.4 87.3 86.8
Children reentering care within 12 mos. of a prior episode 2.9 3.2 3.4 3.6 3.9
Children reentering care more than 12 mos. after a prior episode 7.2 7.7 7.4 8.5 9.0
Missing data 0.5 0.8 0.8 0.7 0.4
Number 19,193 19,840 20,497 18,455 16,434

Reduce Time in Foster Care to Adoption (AFCARS Foster Care File)

Time to Adoption (%)
  2016 2017 2018 2019 2020
Less than 12 mos. 3.5 3.5 2.8 2.7 2.5
At least 12 mos., but less than 24 mos. 49.5 50.0 53.8 52.6 49.9
At least 24 mos., but less than 36 mos. 30.6 30.3 30.2 31.1 33.9
At least 36 mos., but less than 48 mos. 9.2 9.2 7.3 7.9 7.8
48 or more mos. 7.2 6.9 5.9 5.7 6.0
Missing data 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0
Number 5,708 5,341 5,735 6,094 5,241

Increase Placement Stability (AFCARS Foster Care File)

Number of Placements by Time in Care (%)
  In Care Less Than 12 Months In Care at Least 12 months but Less Than 24 months In Care for 24 Months or Longer Time in Care Missing or Out of Range
  2016 2017 2018 2019 2020 2016 2017 2018 2019 2020 2016 2017 2018 2019 2020 2016 2017 2018 2019 2020
Children with 2 or fewer placements 84.0 83.5 83.1 82.8 84.2 57.0 56.8 56.0 56.2 55.6 22.6 21.7 23.2 21.7 21.6 98.7 93.5 89.3 94.6 96.3
Children with 3 or more placements 16.0 16.5 16.9 17.2 15.8 43.0 43.2 44.0 43.8 44.4 77.4 78.3 76.8 78.3 78.4 1.3 6.5 10.7 5.4 3.8
Missing Placement setting counts 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0
Total number 22,977 23,950 24,916 22,755 19,948 14,968 16,102 17,097 17,688 16,631 10,941 10,248 10,320 10,580 10,884 77 31 28 74 80

Reduce Placement of Young Children in Group Homes or Institutions (AFCARS Foster Care File)

Most Recent Placement Settings of Children Who Entered Care During the Fiscal Year and Were Age 12 or Younger at the Time of This Placement (%)
  2016 2017 2018 2019 2020
Group homes 0.2 <.1 0.1 <.1 0.0
Institution 4.7 5.2 4.8 4.9 4.6
Other settings 94.8 94.7 94.8 94.7 95.1
Missing data 0.2 <.1 0.3 0.3 0.2
Number 16,597 17,053 17,659 15,728 13,941