Tennessee

Tennessee [Context Data]

A. Context Statistics 1 2

General Child Population (Census Bureau) 3
  2016 2017 2018 2019 2020
Total children under 18 years 1,504,184 1,507,817 1,510,375 1,510,976 1,513,401
Race/ethnicity (%) 4
Alaska Native / American Indian 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.2
Asian 1.8 1.9 1.9 2.0 2.0
Black 19.2 19.1 19.0 18.9 18.9
Native Hawaiian / Other Pacific Islander <.1 <.1 <.1 <.1 <.1
Hispanic (of any race) 9.2 9.6 9.9 10.2 10.4
White 65.7 65.3 65.0 64.7 64.4
Two or more races 3.7 3.8 3.9 4.0 4.1
Child population in poverty (%) 22.6 21.2 22.3 19.7 18.8
Child Welfare Summary 5
  2016 2017 2018 2019 2020
Child maltreatment victims 9,665 9,354 9,186 9,859 8,687
Foster care entry rate 4.0 4.4 4.6 4.4 3.9
Children in foster care on 9/30 7,693 8,558 8,929 9,290 8,839
Children adopted 1,225 1,260 1,248 1,166 1,186
Caseworker Visits 6
  2016 2017 2018 2019 2020
Children receiving monthly visits (%) 97 97 96 96 97
Numerator 79,312 82,033 86,085 90,342 93,390
Denominator 81,407 84,741 89,424 93,804 95,909
Children receiving visits in the home (%) 75 77 75 76 82
Numerator 59,826 62,951 64,135 68,348 76,596
Denominator 79,312 82,033 86,085 90,342 93,390

1 The source data for each table is indicated in parentheses for each section. A calendar year is the basis for data from the Census Bureau. Most of the other data on these pages are from the National Child Abuse and Neglect Data System (NCANDS) or the Adoption and Foster Care Analysis and Reporting System (AFCARS) and are based on the federal fiscal year, October 1 through September 30.  Back
2 Data that did not meet the quality standards for inclusion in the report are represented as DQ*. Incomplete data excluded from inclusion in the report are represented as --. For additional information on the data quality thresholds for the Child Welfare Outcomes Report, please reference the full report or the Child Welfare Outcomes data site.  Back
3 The total child population and data on race/ethnicity represent estimates from the Census Bureau https://www.census.gov/data/tables.html . Child poverty data are from the Census Bureau's American Community Survey (ACS). Due to the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic, the 2020 poverty estimates are not available on data.census.gov. The 2020 poverty estimates are considered experimental and can be found on the ACS Experimental Data webpage: https://www.census.gov/programs-surveys/acs/data/experimental-data.html.  Back
4 For race/ethnicity tables, all races exclude children of Hispanic origin. The Child Welfare Outcomes Report data site http://cwoutcomes.acf.hhs.gov/cwodatasite provides alternative race/ethnicity breakdowns in which race and ethnicity are treated as two separate categories.  Back
5 A child victim is defined as a child for whom the state determined at least one maltreatment was substantiated or indicated. This includes a child who died of child abuse and neglect. This is a change from prior years when children with dispositions of alternative response victim were included as victims. The rate for foster care entry is per 1,000 children in the state population. Data on child maltreatment victims are from NCANDS. Data on foster care entry rate, children in foster care on 9/30, and children adopted are from AFCARS.  Back
6 The reporting population subject to the caseworker visits requirements includes all children under age 18 for at least the first day of the FY (October 1) who have been in foster care for at least one full calendar month during the FY. All states have the option of using an approved sampling procedure for the caseworker visits reporting requirement.  Back

B. Child Maltreatment Data (National Child Abuse and Neglect Data System [NCANDS]) 7

Overview Maltreatment Information 8
  2016 2017 2018 2019 2020
  Number Rate Number Rate Number Rate Number Rate Number Rate
Children subject of an investigated report alleging child maltreatment 91,562 60.9 per 1,000 91,992 61.0 per 1,000 87,384 57.9 per 1,000 94,946 62.8 per 1,000 86,109 56.9 per 1,000
Total child maltreatment victims 9,665 6.4 per 1,000 9,354 6.2 per 1,000 9,186 6.1 per 1,000 9,859 6.5 per 1,000 8,687 5.7 per 1,000
Child Fatalities 41 2.7 per 100,000 33 2.2 per 100,000 47 3.1 per 100,000 43 2.8 per 100,000 34 2.2 per 100,000
Age of Child Victims (%)
  2016 2017 2018 2019 2020
Under 1 year 17.8 17.9 23.4 22.5 22.2
1 year 5.6 5.7 6.0 7.9 7.9
2 years 5.5 5.6 5.1 5.3 5.3
3 years 5.3 5.1 5.1 5.2 4.9
4 years 5.2 5.7 4.8 4.9 4.9
5 years 5.1 5.2 4.7 4.7 4.5
6 years 4.7 4.5 3.9 4.3 4.5
7 years 4.8 4.5 4.1 4.0 4.0
8 years 4.9 4.5 3.9 3.7 3.6
9 years 4.7 4.6 3.9 3.9 3.5
10 years 4.3 4.2 4.5 3.7 3.9
11 years 4.3 4.4 4.0 4.0 4.5
12 years 5.1 4.8 4.8 4.9 5.0
13 years 4.6 4.8 4.3 4.3 4.7
14 years 4.5 4.4 4.3 4.5 4.5
15 years 4.6 4.8 4.6 4.1 3.9
16 years 4.0 4.6 4.0 3.8 4.2
17 years 2.9 3.5 3.5 3.3 3.2
18+ years <.1 <.1 <.1 <.1 <.1
Missing data 2.1 1.1 1.1 1.0 0.8
Number 9,665 9,354 9,186 9,859 8,687
Race/Ethnicity of Child Victims (%)
  2016 2017 2018 2019 2020
Alaska Native / American Indian <.1 0.0 <.1 <.1 0.1
Asian 0.2 0.1 <.1 <.1 0.1
Black 13.0 13.0 12.2 12.4 12.1
Native Hawaiian / Other Pacific Islander 0.1 0.1 <.1 <.1 <.1
Hispanic (of any race) 2.2 2.7 2.7 2.7 2.5
White 48.1 52.1 45.4 43.4 46.3
Two or more races 2.5 2.6 2.6 2.6 2.7
Missing data 34.0 29.4 36.9 38.7 36.1
Number 9,665 9,354 9,186 9,859 8,687
Maltreatment Types of Child Victims (%) 9
  2016 2017 2018 2019 2020
Emotional abuse 2.8 2.4 3.1 4.0 5.4
Medical neglect 1.5 1.4 1.9 1.5 1.5
Neglect 26.5 24.6 22.2 25.2 25.7
Physical abuse 62.1 62.3 62.6 61.9 59.8
Sexual abuse 27.9 27.6 27.8 25.2 26.9
Sex trafficking 0.0 0.0 0.9 1.1 1.2
Missing data 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0
Other 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0
Number 9,665 9,354 9,186 9,859 8,687
Time to Investigation (in hours) 10
  2016 2017 2018 2019 2020
Mean 85.5 90.4 95.2 105.2 100.7
Median >48 but <72 >48 but <72 >48 but <72 >48 but <72 >48 but <72

7 The unique count of child victims counts a child only once regardless of the number of times he or she was found to be a victim during the reporting year.  Back
8 The rates for Child Protective Services responses and victims are per 1,000 children under age 18; for fatalities, the rate is per 100,000 children under age 18.  Back
9 These percentages are calculated against the number of unique victims. A child may have been the victim of more than one type of maltreatment, or the same type of maltreatment more than once. As a result, the total percentages both within and across maltreatment categories may exceed 100.  Back
10 Response time is defined as the time between the report of suspected maltreatment and the first face-to-face contact with the alleged victim or with another person who can provide information on the allegation.  Back

C. Characteristics of Children in Foster Care (Adoption and Foster Care Analysis and Reporting System [AFCARS] Foster Care File)

Overview Foster Care Information
  In Foster Care on 10/1 FY Entered Foster Care in FY Exited Foster Care in FY In Foster Care on 9/30 FY
  2016 2017 2018 2019 2020 2016 2017 2018 2019 2020 2016 2017 2018 2019 2020 2016 2017 2018 2019 2020
Total number 6,464 6,566 7,282 7,652 8,814 6,015 6,679 6,888 6,719 5,860 4,785 4,688 5,241 5,081 5,835 7,693 8,558 8,929 9,290 8,839
Median length of stay (months) 9.4 9.7 8.8 9.8 9.8 N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A 10.7 11.1 10.0 11.3 11.7 9.4 8.6 9.8 9.9 12.2
Age of Children in Foster Care (%)
  In Foster Care on 10/1 FY Entered Foster Care in FY Exited Foster Care in FY In Foster Care on 9/30 FY
  2016 2017 2018 2019 2020 2016 2017 2018 2019 2020 2016 2017 2018 2019 2020 2016 2017 2018 2019 2020
Under 1 year 6.2 5.7 5.9 6.1 6.3 11.0 11.5 12.3 13.1 13.6 3.4 4.0 3.9 3.7 3.4 5.1 5.5 5.8 6.1 5.7
1 year 6.7 6.7 6.8 6.8 6.7 4.9 5.2 5.2 5.1 4.6 6.7 5.9 6.1 6.5 6.1 6.2 6.5 6.3 6.4 7.0
2 years 6.1 5.8 5.9 6.2 5.8 4.3 4.8 4.7 4.4 4.8 5.7 5.7 6.0 6.2 5.3 5.5 5.5 5.9 5.5 5.9
3 years 5.4 5.0 5.2 4.9 5.3 3.5 4.2 3.9 4.7 4.0 5.1 4.4 4.4 5.5 4.6 4.8 5.0 4.8 5.2 5.5
4 years 4.3 5.0 4.9 5.0 5.0 3.8 3.8 4.0 3.9 4.2 4.1 4.2 4.2 4.1 4.5 4.7 4.7 5.0 4.8 4.9
5 years 4.5 3.8 4.6 4.7 4.7 3.0 3.5 3.6 3.4 3.5 4.0 4.2 4.0 4.1 4.2 3.7 4.3 4.6 4.5 4.6
6 years 4.1 4.0 3.9 4.3 4.2 3.0 3.5 3.3 3.6 3.1 3.6 3.3 3.5 3.9 4.0 3.9 3.7 4.1 4.0 4.1
7 years 4.8 3.9 4.0 4.1 4.2 3.2 2.9 3.2 3.2 3.4 3.8 3.5 3.3 3.5 3.9 3.6 3.8 3.9 4.1 3.8
8 years 4.0 4.3 3.7 3.9 3.9 3.2 3.4 3.3 3.2 3.5 3.6 3.6 3.2 3.2 3.4 4.1 3.5 3.7 3.8 4.0
9 years 3.7 4.1 3.9 3.7 3.9 3.0 2.8 3.1 3.2 3.1 2.8 3.7 3.4 3.0 3.1 3.9 3.6 3.6 3.8 4.2
10 years 3.5 3.5 4.2 3.9 3.9 2.8 3.3 3.1 3.5 3.4 3.2 3.1 3.1 3.3 3.5 3.4 4.0 3.8 3.8 3.8
11 years 3.3 3.5 3.6 4.1 4.2 2.6 3.3 3.4 3.5 3.2 2.6 3.0 3.1 3.2 3.2 3.3 3.4 3.9 4.0 3.9
12 years 3.6 3.4 3.8 4.1 4.5 3.3 3.6 4.3 4.1 4.0 2.9 3.1 3.2 3.0 3.2 3.4 3.6 3.9 4.4 4.4
13 years 4.2 4.4 4.6 4.9 4.8 4.3 4.6 4.5 4.8 4.8 2.7 3.0 3.2 3.8 3.6 4.2 4.4 4.7 4.8 5.2
14 years 5.5 5.8 5.6 6.1 5.7 6.9 6.2 6.4 6.0 6.2 4.0 4.1 4.3 4.3 4.6 5.6 5.3 5.8 5.7 5.5
15 years 7.4 7.8 7.6 7.2 6.8 9.1 8.6 8.1 7.4 7.3 6.3 5.7 5.5 5.8 5.7 7.8 7.5 7.1 6.8 6.9
16 years 9.9 10.4 9.6 9.2 8.1 11.4 10.3 9.5 9.1 9.6 7.8 7.8 8.3 8.1 7.3 10.3 10.0 9.1 8.1 7.7
17 years 7.8 7.8 7.7 6.7 7.4 9.9 8.8 8.4 8.1 7.5 10.1 10.0 9.8 8.7 9.1 11.5 11.2 9.8 9.9 9.0
18 years 3.2 3.3 2.8 2.7 3.0 6.0 5.0 5.1 5.1 5.6 14.3 14.4 14.8 13.5 14.2 3.6 3.1 2.9 2.8 2.4
19 years 1.2 1.1 1.2 0.9 1.1 0.5 0.6 0.4 0.5 0.4 2.0 1.7 1.4 1.3 1.9 1.0 1.0 0.8 1.0 0.9
20+ years 0.5 0.6 0.6 0.6 0.5 0.2 0.2 0.1 0.2 0.2 0.7 0.9 0.6 0.9 0.7 0.5 0.5 0.6 0.5 0.6
Missing data 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.5 0.7 0.6 0.6 0.5 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0
Race/Ethnicity of Children in Foster Care (%)
  In Foster Care on 10/1 FY Entered Foster Care in FY Exited Foster Care in FY In Foster Care on 9/30 FY
  2016 2017 2018 2019 2020 2016 2017 2018 2019 2020 2016 2017 2018 2019 2020 2016 2017 2018 2019 2020
Alaska Native / American Indian 0.1 0.1 <.1 0.1 0.1 <.1 0.1 0.2 0.1 0.2 0.1 0.2 <.1 0.2 0.3 <.1 <.1 0.2 0.1 0.1
Asian 0.2 0.2 0.1 0.1 0.2 <.1 <.1 0.1 0.2 0.2 <.1 <.1 0.2 0.1 0.2 0.2 0.1 0.1 0.2 0.2
Black 20.7 22.2 22.6 22.3 22.5 23.7 22.7 21.5 22.9 23.3 21.7 21.7 21.7 22.3 22.9 22.4 22.8 22.3 22.7 22.8
Native Hawaiian / Other Pacific Islander <.1 <.1 <.1 <.1 0.1 <.1 <.1 <.1 0.1 <.1 <.1 <.1 <.1 <.1 <.1 <.1 <.1 <.1 0.1 0.1
Hispanic (of any race) 6.1 6.1 4.8 5.6 6.4 6.2 5.2 5.7 6.5 5.5 5.9 6.8 4.8 5.7 6.4 6.3 4.9 5.4 6.2 5.9
White 66.6 65.4 65.4 64.8 63.6 64.6 65.1 63.4 61.7 62.1 66.3 65.4 65.9 64.6 62.9 65.2 65.1 63.6 62.7 63.1
Two or more races 6.0 5.8 6.6 6.4 6.6 5.0 6.1 5.9 5.8 6.2 5.4 5.0 6.3 5.7 6.6 5.6 6.5 6.2 6.4 6.3
Unknown 0.3 0.2 0.1 0.3 0.4 0.3 0.3 0.7 0.8 0.7 0.4 0.4 0.2 0.4 0.4 0.2 0.2 0.5 0.6 0.6
Missing data 0.0 0.0 0.1 0.2 0.1 <.1 0.4 2.5 1.7 1.6 <.1 0.2 0.9 0.8 0.4 <.1 0.2 1.6 0.9 0.9

D. Characteristics of Children "Waiting for Adoption" 11 (AFCARS Foster Care File)

Children Waiting for Adoption
  2016 2017 2018 2019 2020
Total waiting children 1,301 1,322 1,625 1,743 1,829
Number of waiting children whose parents' rights have been terminated 1,112 1,067 999 1,014 982

11 There is no federal definition for a child waiting to be adopted. The definition used in the tables on this page includes children and youth through age 17 who have a goal of adoption and/or whose parents' parental rights have been terminated. It excludes children 16 years old and older whose parents' parental rights have been terminated and who have a goal of emancipation. A state's own definition may differ from that used here.  Back

Age of Children Waiting for Adoption (%) 12
  2016 2017 2018 2019 2020
Under 1 year 2.0 2.3 2.4 1.8 2.2
1 year 4.5 5.7 6.4 6.3 7.3
2 years 6.1 5.6 6.0 5.9 6.3
3 years 4.3 4.7 5.8 5.5 4.8
4 years 4.7 4.8 5.0 5.6 4.7
5 years 3.2 4.4 5.6 4.9 5.2
6 years 4.5 3.3 5.4 5.0 4.0
7 years 5.2 4.2 3.9 5.7 4.5
8 years 4.5 4.2 4.0 4.6 4.8
9 years 4.2 5.4 2.8 4.5 4.5
10 years 4.4 5.2 4.4 4.6 5.0
11 years 5.7 4.1 5.3 4.4 4.8
12 years 5.2 5.1 4.6 5.0 5.6
13 years 5.8 5.5 5.6 4.8 6.1
14 years 6.5 7.4 6.2 7.2 5.5
15 years 7.8 8.1 7.4 6.4 8.4
16 years 9.5 9.5 9.8 8.1 8.0
17 years 12.0 10.4 9.2 9.9 8.3

12 Children older than 17 years fall outside of the definition used to identify waiting children and are therefore excluded from this table.  Back

Race/Ethnicity of Children Waiting for Adoption (%)
  2016 2017 2018 2019 2020
Alaska Native / American Indian <.1 <.1 0.0 0.0 <.1
Asian 0.2 0.2 0.1 <.1 <.1
Black 14.1 17.9 17.1 17.2 17.9
Native Hawaiian / Other Pacific Islander 0.2 0.2 0.1 0.3 0.3
Hispanic (of any race) 5.7 4.7 5.2 4.8 5.1
White 73.0 70.0 71.1 69.3 68.7
Two or more races 6.4 6.9 5.7 7.6 7.1
Unknown 0.4 <.1 0.2 0.3 0.4
Missing data 0.0 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.3

E. Characteristics of Children Adopted (AFCARS Adoption File)

Children Adopted
  2016 2017 2018 2019 2020
Total children adopted 1,225 1,260 1,248 1,166 1,186
Age of Children Adopted (%)
  2016 2017 2018 2019 2020
Under 1 year 3.3 3.6 3.7 3.1 2.8
1 year 10.8 11.7 11.7 12.7 10.9
2 years 11.2 10.5 11.3 12.3 10.4
3 years 10.5 8.9 7.0 10.3 8.3
4 years 7.2 7.0 7.1 7.5 8.7
5 years 7.5 6.7 7.1 7.2 6.6
6 years 5.1 5.3 5.7 6.5 6.7
7 years 6.0 6.5 4.6 4.4 6.8
8 years 5.6 5.2 4.2 5.2 5.2
9 years 5.1 5.2 6.2 3.3 3.9
10 years 4.7 5.6 4.2 3.6 4.3
11 years 5.2 5.2 5.3 4.6 3.3
12 years 3.1 3.7 4.5 3.7 4.0
13 years 3.3 3.2 4.2 2.9 3.2
14 years 2.9 2.7 3.6 3.3 4.2
15 years 3.3 3.1 3.8 3.3 4.1
16 years 2.7 3.2 3.2 3.9 3.0
17 years 2.7 2.5 2.3 2.1 3.2
18 years <.1 <.1 0.3 0.2 0.4
19 years 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0
20+ years 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0
Race/Ethnicity of Children Adopted (%)
  2016 2017 2018 2019 2020
Alaska Native / American Indian <.1 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0
Asian 0.0 <.1 0.2 0.0 0.0
Black 11.1 8.7 11.9 10.9 11.6
Native Hawaiian / Other Pacific Islander <.1 0.0 0.0 <.1 0.3
Hispanic (of any race) 6.7 7.3 4.5 3.6 4.3
White 75.1 75.9 74.5 77.1 76.4
Two or more races 6.8 7.8 8.8 8.1 7.4
Unknown 0.2 0.3 <.1 0.3 <.1
Missing data 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0

Tennessee [Outcomes Data]

Reduce Recurrence of Child Abuse and/or Neglect (NCANDS)

Recurrence of Maltreatment Within 12 Months (%)
  2015-2016 2016-2017 2017-2018 2018-2019 2019-2020
Children without a recurrence 95.2 96.2 96.3 96.1 95.8
Children with one or more recurrences 4.8 3.8 3.7 3.9 4.2
Number 10,911 8,847 9,288 9,120 9,595

Reduce the Incidence of Child Abuse and/or Neglect in Foster Care (NCANDS and AFCARS Foster Care File)

2.1 Maltreatment in Foster Care (%)
  2016 2017 2018 2019 2020
Children maltreated while in foster care 0.13 0.14 0.19 0.17 0.29
Children not maltreated while in foster care 99.87 99.86 99.81 99.83 99.71
Number 12,480 13,246 14,170 14,371 14,674

Increase Permanency for Children in Foster Care (AFCARS Foster Care File)

3.1 Exits of Children From Foster Care (%)
  2016 2017 2018 2019 2020
Adoption 22.1 23.5 20.6 20.5 19.1
Guardianship 6.2 5.2 5.5 7.5 7.3
Reunification 56.5 55.2 57.8 57.6 58.3
Other 7.3 8.5 8.6 7.7 8.4
Missing data 7.9 7.6 7.5 6.7 6.9
Number 4,786 4,688 5,241 5,081 5,835
Exits of Children With a Diagnosed Disability (%)
  2016 2017 2018 2019 2020
Adoption 21.5 27.2 25.3 17.0 14.1
Guardianship 2.0 2.3 2.9 4.8 5.5
Reunification 48.7 44.2 44.4 59.5 62.1
Other 13.8 14.4 13.5 9.7 10.3
Missing data 14.0 12.0 14.0 9.1 8.1
Number 901 842 838 2,053 3,985
Exits of Children Older than Age 12 at Entry Into Foster Care (%)
  2016 2017 2018 2019 2020
Adoption 2.7 3.2 3.0 3.4 3.7
Guardianship 2.3 2.6 2.3 3.2 3.3
Reunification 62.1 59.5 59.7 60.5 58.7
Other 15.1 17.5 17.9 16.9 18.2
Missing data 17.8 17.2 17.0 16.0 16.1
Number 2,129 2,069 2,315 2,116 2,484
Exits to Emancipation (%)
  2016 2017 2018 2019 2020
Children age 12 or younger at entry 5.3 5.2 5.2 7.1 5.0
Children older than 12 at entry 94.7 94.8 94.8 92.9 95.0
Missing data 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0
Number 304 343 388 337 422
Exits by Race/Ethnicity (%)
  Alaska Native / American Indian Asian Black (non-Hispanic)
  2016 2017 2018 2019 2020 2016 2017 2018 2019 2020 2016 2017 2018 2019 2020
Adoption 16.7 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 25.0 25.0 0.0 0.0 11.2 8.7 10.9 9.9 9.4
Guardianship 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 7.0 7.1 6.3 10.4 7.8
Reunification 33.3 80.0 50.0 62.5 81.3 50.0 50.0 25.0 33.3 66.7 63.4 63.7 61.1 62.2 65.2
Other 16.7 10.0 50.0 25.0 18.8 25.0 0.0 12.5 33.3 11.1 8.4 9.9 11.5 9.5 9.4
Missing data 33.3 10.0 0.0 12.5 0.0 25.0 25.0 37.5 33.3 22.2 10.0 10.6 10.1 8.0 8.2
Number 6 10 4 8 16 4 4 8 6 9 1,038 1,018 1,135 1,134 1,335
Exits by Race/Ethnicity (%)
  Native Hawaiian/Other Pac. Is. Hispanic (of any race) White (non-Hispanic)
  2016 2017 2018 2019 2020 2016 2017 2018 2019 2020 2016 2017 2018 2019 2020
Adoption 25.0 0.0 0.0 20.0 75.0 24.7 24.3 18.1 12.0 13.4 25.2 27.6 23.8 24.7 23.3
Guardianship 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 3.2 2.2 2.4 4.5 5.3 6.3 5.1 5.4 6.8 7.7
Reunification 25.0 50.0 0.0 80.0 25.0 58.0 57.0 64.2 63.4 63.1 54.1 52.4 56.1 55.3 54.6
Other 25.0 50.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 5.3 10.6 10.2 13.0 11.2 7.3 8.0 7.7 6.9 8.1
Missing data 25.0 0.0 100.0 0.0 0.0 8.8 5.9 5.1 7.2 7.0 7.2 6.9 7.0 6.3 6.4
Number 4 2 1 5 4 283 321 254 292 374 3,173 3,068 3,453 3,281 3,669
Exits by Race/Ethnicity (%)
  Unable to Determine Two or More Races Missing Data
  2016 2017 2018 2019 2020 2016 2017 2018 2019 2020 2016 2017 2018 2019 2020
Adoption 11.1 21.1 0.0 13.6 4.3 27.2 36.2 25.8 27.4 20.6 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0
Guardianship 0.0 0.0 0.0 4.5 4.3 6.2 3.0 7.0 9.2 4.7 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0
Reunification 88.9 68.4 100.0 72.7 82.6 55.3 47.2 53.9 52.4 60.2 100.0 100.0 93.3 100.0 100.0
Other 0.0 0.0 0.0 4.5 0.0 4.3 6.8 7.3 5.1 6.3 0.0 0.0 6.7 0.0 0.0
Missing data 0.0 10.5 0.0 4.5 8.7 7.0 6.8 6.1 5.8 8.3 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0
Number 18 19 11 22 23 257 235 330 292 384 3 11 45 41 21

Reduce Time to Reunification Without Increasing Reentry (AFCARS Foster Care File)

Time to Reunification (%)
  2016 2017 2018 2019 2020
Less than 12 mos. 74.7 74.4 76.2 69.6 67.3
At least 12 mos., but less than 24 mos. 20.3 19.9 18.6 24.0 25.0
At least 24 mos., but less than 36 mos. 3.6 3.9 4.0 5.2 6.2
At least 36 mos., but less than 48 mos. 0.9 1.3 0.6 1.0 1.0
48 or more mos. 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.2 0.5
Missing data 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0
Number 2,704 2,586 3,029 2,925 3,402
Children Reentering Foster Care (%)
  2016 2017 2018 2019 2020
Children entering care for the first time 76.4 77.9 78.7 78.7 78.2
Children reentering care within 12 mos. of a prior episode 13.0 12.2 11.6 11.9 12.4
Children reentering care more than 12 mos. after a prior episode 10.6 9.9 9.7 9.4 9.3
Missing data 0.0 0.0 0.0 <.1 <.1
Number 6,015 6,679 6,888 6,719 5,860

Reduce Time in Foster Care to Adoption (AFCARS Foster Care File)

Time to Adoption (%)
  2016 2017 2018 2019 2020
Less than 12 mos. 7.6 8.6 9.8 8.3 5.3
At least 12 mos., but less than 24 mos. 37.5 38.8 38.5 37.1 36.8
At least 24 mos., but less than 36 mos. 30.7 28.6 31.8 34.4 33.3
At least 36 mos., but less than 48 mos. 16.1 16.1 11.2 14.6 16.3
48 or more mos. 8.0 7.9 8.7 5.7 8.3
Missing data 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0
Number 1,060 1,103 1,079 1,041 1,114

Increase Placement Stability (AFCARS Foster Care File)

Number of Placements by Time in Care (%)
  In Care Less Than 12 Months In Care at Least 12 months but Less Than 24 months In Care for 24 Months or Longer Time in Care Missing or Out of Range
  2016 2017 2018 2019 2020 2016 2017 2018 2019 2020 2016 2017 2018 2019 2020 2016 2017 2018 2019 2020
Children with 2 or fewer placements 67.0 67.9 67.8 68.6 66.0 53.1 51.5 50.3 50.2 50.2 36.6 35.0 36.6 35.2 33.4 94.1 100.0 100.0 94.1 66.7
Children with 3 or more placements 32.8 31.8 31.9 31.1 33.7 46.8 48.4 49.7 49.8 49.8 63.3 65.0 63.3 64.7 66.6 5.9 0.0 0.0 5.9 33.3
Missing Placement setting counts 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.3 0.4 <.1 <.1 <.1 0.0 <.1 <.1 <.1 <.1 <.1 <.1 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0
Total number 7,099 7,730 8,125 7,849 7,344 3,168 3,246 3,647 3,806 4,205 2,196 2,269 2,397 2,699 3,113 17 1 1 17 12

Reduce Placement of Young Children in Group Homes or Institutions (AFCARS Foster Care File)

Most Recent Placement Settings of Children Who Entered Care During the Fiscal Year and Were Age 12 or Younger at the Time of This Placement (%)
  2016 2017 2018 2019 2020
Group homes 1.0 1.1 1.0 0.8 0.9
Institution 2.1 1.6 1.8 2.2 1.9
Other settings 96.8 97.2 97.1 96.9 97.1
Missing data 0.0 <.1 <.1 0.1 <.1
Number 3,078 3,684 3,897 3,916 3,385