Pennsylvania

Pennsylvania [Context Data]

A. Context Statistics 1 2

General Child Population (Census Bureau) 3
  2016 2017 2018 2019 2020
Total children under 18 years 2,676,272 2,665,549 2,653,058 2,635,819 2,620,757
Race/ethnicity (%) 4
Alaska Native / American Indian 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.1
Asian 3.7 3.9 4.0 4.0 4.1
Black 12.9 12.9 12.9 12.9 12.9
Native Hawaiian / Other Pacific Islander <.1 <.1 <.1 <.1 <.1
Hispanic (of any race) 11.7 12.1 12.7 13.0 13.3
White 67.5 66.9 66.2 65.7 65.2
Two or more races 3.9 4.0 4.1 4.2 4.3
Child population in poverty (%) 18.5 17.0 16.8 16.9 14.4
Child Welfare Summary 5
  2016 2017 2018 2019 2020
Child maltreatment victims 4,355 4,625 4,695 4,817 4,582
Foster care entry rate 4.1 4.1 3.8 3.6 2.8
Children in foster care on 9/30 16,086 16,891 16,566 15,526 14,354
Children adopted 1,917 2,077 2,628 2,849 2,087
Caseworker Visits 6
  2016 2017 2018 2019 2020
Children receiving monthly visits (%) 97 97 97 97 97
Numerator 3,002 3,007 2,987 2,952 3,110
Denominator 3,087 3,108 3,080 3,059 3,220
Children receiving visits in the home (%) 99 99 98 97 99
Numerator 2,961 2,972 2,925 2,867 3,065
Denominator 3,002 3,007 2,987 2,952 3,110

1 The source data for each table is indicated in parentheses for each section. A calendar year is the basis for data from the Census Bureau. Most of the other data on these pages are from the National Child Abuse and Neglect Data System (NCANDS) or the Adoption and Foster Care Analysis and Reporting System (AFCARS) and are based on the federal fiscal year, October 1 through September 30.  Back
2 Data that did not meet the quality standards for inclusion in the report are represented as DQ*. Incomplete data excluded from inclusion in the report are represented as --. For additional information on the data quality thresholds for the Child Welfare Outcomes Report, please reference the full report or the Child Welfare Outcomes data site.  Back
3 The total child population and data on race/ethnicity represent estimates from the Census Bureau https://www.census.gov/data/tables.html . Child poverty data are from the Census Bureau's American Community Survey (ACS). Due to the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic, the 2020 poverty estimates are not available on data.census.gov. The 2020 poverty estimates are considered experimental and can be found on the ACS Experimental Data webpage: https://www.census.gov/programs-surveys/acs/data/experimental-data.html.  Back
4 For race/ethnicity tables, all races exclude children of Hispanic origin. The Child Welfare Outcomes Report data site http://cwoutcomes.acf.hhs.gov/cwodatasite provides alternative race/ethnicity breakdowns in which race and ethnicity are treated as two separate categories.  Back
5 A child victim is defined as a child for whom the state determined at least one maltreatment was substantiated or indicated. This includes a child who died of child abuse and neglect. This is a change from prior years when children with dispositions of alternative response victim were included as victims. The rate for foster care entry is per 1,000 children in the state population. Data on child maltreatment victims are from NCANDS. Data on foster care entry rate, children in foster care on 9/30, and children adopted are from AFCARS.  Back
6 The reporting population subject to the caseworker visits requirements includes all children under age 18 for at least the first day of the FY (October 1) who have been in foster care for at least one full calendar month during the FY. All states have the option of using an approved sampling procedure for the caseworker visits reporting requirement.  Back

B. Child Maltreatment Data (National Child Abuse and Neglect Data System [NCANDS]) 7

Overview Maltreatment Information 8
  2016 2017 2018 2019 2020
  Number Rate Number Rate Number Rate Number Rate Number Rate
Children subject of an investigated report alleging child maltreatment 40,237 15.0 per 1,000 42,890 16.1 per 1,000 42,295 15.9 per 1,000 41,062 15.6 per 1,000 35,447 13.5 per 1,000
Total child maltreatment victims 4,355 1.6 per 1,000 4,625 1.7 per 1,000 4,695 1.8 per 1,000 4,817 1.8 per 1,000 4,582 1.7 per 1,000
Child Fatalities 47 1.8 per 100,000 42 1.6 per 100,000 45 1.7 per 100,000 54 2.0 per 100,000 67 2.6 per 100,000
Age of Child Victims (%)
  2016 2017 2018 2019 2020
Under 1 year 7.3 7.8 8.5 8.5 7.7
1 year 4.6 4.8 4.9 5.4 5.2
2 years 4.1 5.3 4.2 4.6 5.2
3 years 4.5 4.3 4.4 4.6 4.3
4 years 4.7 4.8 4.7 4.4 5.2
5 years 5.5 5.4 4.6 4.4 4.3
6 years 4.7 4.6 4.7 4.5 4.0
7 years 4.7 4.8 4.6 4.3 3.8
8 years 5.2 4.7 4.6 4.5 4.1
9 years 4.5 4.3 4.4 4.9 4.6
10 years 4.8 4.8 4.6 4.6 5.0
11 years 4.9 5.0 4.6 4.9 5.4
12 years 5.7 5.9 5.8 6.6 5.7
13 years 6.9 6.3 6.8 6.5 6.9
14 years 8.2 6.7 7.1 7.5 7.8
15 years 6.9 7.1 7.7 7.6 7.4
16 years 6.6 6.6 7.3 6.0 6.7
17 years 4.9 5.2 5.0 4.9 5.2
18+ years 1.3 1.6 1.6 1.5 1.4
Missing data <.1 0.0 <.1 0.0 0.0
Number 4,355 4,625 4,695 4,817 4,582
Race/Ethnicity of Child Victims (%)
  2016 2017 2018 2019 2020
Alaska Native / American Indian <.1 0.0 <.1 0.1 <.1
Asian 0.3 0.5 0.7 0.8 0.6
Black 22.7 22.4 21.9 21.1 18.9
Native Hawaiian / Other Pacific Islander <.1 0.0 0.0 <.1 <.1
Hispanic (of any race) 9.2 11.3 14.9 16.8 15.6
White 58.3 57.4 54.7 52.4 56.0
Two or more races 6.9 6.7 6.6 6.5 6.3
Missing data 2.5 1.6 1.0 2.2 2.5
Number 4,355 4,625 4,695 4,817 4,582
Maltreatment Types of Child Victims (%) 9
  2016 2017 2018 2019 2020
Emotional abuse 1.6 1.2 1.3 1.2 1.0
Medical neglect 4.7 5.6 4.6 4.7 3.7
Neglect 5.9 8.1 8.7 10.1 9.6
Physical abuse 43.2 43.3 44.3 45.7 45.8
Sexual abuse 49.4 46.9 46.9 44.9 46.6
Sex trafficking 0.0 0.0 0.3 0.7 0.9
Missing data 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0
Other 1.4 1.6 1.0 0.5 0.3
Number 4,355 4,625 4,695 4,817 4,582
Time to Investigation (in hours) 10
  2016 2017 2018 2019 2020
Mean -- -- -- -- --
Median -- -- -- -- --

7 The unique count of child victims counts a child only once regardless of the number of times he or she was found to be a victim during the reporting year.  Back
8 The rates for Child Protective Services responses and victims are per 1,000 children under age 18; for fatalities, the rate is per 100,000 children under age 18.  Back
9 These percentages are calculated against the number of unique victims. A child may have been the victim of more than one type of maltreatment, or the same type of maltreatment more than once. As a result, the total percentages both within and across maltreatment categories may exceed 100.  Back
10 Response time is defined as the time between the report of suspected maltreatment and the first face-to-face contact with the alleged victim or with another person who can provide information on the allegation.  Back

C. Characteristics of Children in Foster Care (Adoption and Foster Care Analysis and Reporting System [AFCARS] Foster Care File)

Overview Foster Care Information
  In Foster Care on 10/1 FY Entered Foster Care in FY Exited Foster Care in FY In Foster Care on 9/30 FY
  2016 2017 2018 2019 2020 2016 2017 2018 2019 2020 2016 2017 2018 2019 2020 2016 2017 2018 2019 2020
Total number 14,923 15,554 16,342 16,056 15,162 10,899 10,998 10,155 9,528 7,254 9,736 9,661 9,931 10,058 8,062 16,086 16,891 16,566 15,526 14,354
Median length of stay (months) 12.2 13.1 13.4 14.2 14.2 N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A 11.9 12.9 14.2 16.9 16.1 12.9 12.9 14.0 14.0 16.5
Age of Children in Foster Care (%)
  In Foster Care on 10/1 FY Entered Foster Care in FY Exited Foster Care in FY In Foster Care on 9/30 FY
  2016 2017 2018 2019 2020 2016 2017 2018 2019 2020 2016 2017 2018 2019 2020 2016 2017 2018 2019 2020
Under 1 year 6.2 5.9 6.0 5.8 6.4 14.9 15.6 16.4 17.0 19.3 4.2 4.0 4.3 3.7 3.9 5.9 6.1 5.9 6.4 6.1
1 year 7.9 8.1 7.8 7.8 8.1 6.5 6.3 6.1 6.9 6.9 6.4 6.2 6.3 6.5 6.5 8.0 7.7 7.7 8.0 8.3
2 years 6.9 7.5 7.6 7.3 7.2 5.9 6.2 5.8 5.6 5.6 6.9 7.1 7.5 7.1 7.7 7.3 7.6 7.2 7.2 7.5
3 years 6.5 6.0 6.4 6.6 6.6 4.8 5.1 4.9 5.1 5.0 6.5 6.0 6.6 6.4 6.3 5.9 6.3 6.5 6.5 6.3
4 years 5.6 5.8 5.7 5.6 6.0 4.3 4.8 4.6 4.9 4.3 4.9 5.7 5.9 5.7 5.8 5.7 5.7 5.5 6.0 6.1
5 years 4.7 5.1 5.2 5.2 5.1 4.1 4.2 4.7 4.1 4.1 4.9 5.0 5.5 5.2 5.0 5.1 5.1 5.1 5.0 5.3
6 years 4.7 4.5 4.9 4.6 4.8 4.1 4.1 3.9 3.9 4.0 4.3 4.5 4.7 4.5 4.4 4.5 4.8 4.6 4.7 4.8
7 years 4.3 4.4 4.3 4.9 4.6 3.8 4.0 3.9 4.2 4.0 3.9 4.1 4.2 4.6 4.2 4.3 4.3 4.8 4.5 4.7
8 years 4.1 4.2 4.4 4.1 4.4 3.9 3.6 3.7 3.5 3.3 4.0 3.6 3.8 4.5 3.9 4.1 4.5 4.0 4.3 4.4
9 years 4.0 3.9 4.0 4.3 3.9 3.1 3.6 3.5 3.3 3.3 3.7 3.9 3.7 3.8 3.7 4.0 3.9 4.3 3.9 4.1
10 years 3.7 3.9 3.8 4.1 4.0 3.2 3.2 3.5 3.6 3.5 3.2 3.3 3.4 3.8 3.5 3.8 3.8 4.0 4.0 3.9
11 years 3.1 3.7 3.9 3.9 3.9 2.9 3.2 3.5 3.5 3.3 2.7 3.3 3.6 3.4 3.5 3.7 3.9 3.8 3.9 4.0
12 years 3.4 3.3 3.7 3.8 4.2 3.5 3.7 3.9 3.9 3.7 3.0 3.3 3.5 3.2 3.4 3.3 3.7 3.9 4.2 4.0
13 years 3.8 3.9 3.7 4.1 4.2 4.5 4.5 4.4 4.9 4.4 3.0 3.5 3.5 3.8 3.7 4.0 3.7 4.2 4.3 4.5
14 years 4.4 4.5 4.7 4.3 4.8 6.2 5.7 5.9 5.6 5.5 4.3 3.9 3.9 4.0 4.4 4.8 4.9 4.5 4.9 4.7
15 years 5.8 5.5 5.4 5.7 5.2 7.9 7.2 7.1 6.8 6.4 6.0 5.7 5.3 5.0 5.2 5.7 5.6 6.0 5.4 5.3
16 years 7.5 6.9 6.4 6.1 6.5 8.5 8.1 7.7 7.2 7.3 7.1 6.9 6.4 5.9 6.1 7.1 6.6 6.4 6.7 5.7
17 years 7.3 7.5 6.6 6.5 6.3 6.5 5.6 5.3 5.2 5.2 8.5 7.7 6.9 6.4 6.2 7.6 6.6 6.5 6.4 6.8
18 years 3.2 2.9 2.7 2.4 1.9 0.8 0.9 0.6 0.5 0.6 8.1 8.8 7.6 8.3 9.4 2.9 2.7 2.4 1.8 1.6
19 years 1.6 1.5 1.6 1.6 1.1 0.4 0.3 0.4 0.3 0.2 1.6 1.4 1.5 1.7 1.0 1.5 1.6 1.6 1.1 1.2
20+ years 1.3 1.0 0.9 1.2 1.0 0.2 <.1 0.2 0.1 0.1 1.4 1.4 1.3 1.9 1.4 1.0 0.9 1.1 0.9 0.8
Missing data <.1 <.1 <.1 <.1 <.1 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 1.3 0.8 0.6 0.7 0.8 <.1 <.1 <.1 0.0 0.0
Race/Ethnicity of Children in Foster Care (%)
  In Foster Care on 10/1 FY Entered Foster Care in FY Exited Foster Care in FY In Foster Care on 9/30 FY
  2016 2017 2018 2019 2020 2016 2017 2018 2019 2020 2016 2017 2018 2019 2020 2016 2017 2018 2019 2020
Alaska Native / American Indian <.1 <.1 <.1 <.1 <.1 0.1 <.1 <.1 <.1 <.1 0.1 <.1 0.2 <.1 <.1 <.1 <.1 <.1 <.1 <.1
Asian 0.4 0.5 0.4 0.4 0.3 0.4 0.3 0.4 0.3 0.6 0.3 0.4 0.4 0.5 0.4 0.5 0.4 0.4 0.3 0.4
Black 39.3 38.1 36.5 35.9 35.4 33.3 33.1 32.3 31.2 28.6 33.9 35.0 32.6 32.0 29.7 38.5 36.7 36.3 35.5 35.1
Native Hawaiian / Other Pacific Islander <.1 <.1 <.1 <.1 <.1 <.1 <.1 <.1 <.1 <.1 <.1 <.1 <.1 0.0 <.1 <.1 <.1 <.1 <.1 <.1
Hispanic (of any race) 14.2 13.4 13.6 13.3 12.9 12.6 12.9 12.1 12.3 12.5 13.5 13.1 13.0 12.9 12.4 13.6 13.2 13.1 12.9 13.0
White 39.6 40.7 42.0 42.1 42.4 46.7 45.9 46.4 46.7 48.3 45.6 43.9 46.1 46.0 48.8 40.8 42.2 42.2 42.4 41.8
Two or more races 5.3 6.1 6.6 7.5 8.0 5.4 6.4 7.8 8.2 8.0 5.2 6.3 7.0 7.6 7.5 5.4 6.2 7.1 7.8 8.2
Unknown 1.1 1.1 0.7 0.7 0.9 1.4 1.2 0.9 1.2 1.9 1.3 1.2 0.7 0.9 1.0 1.2 1.2 0.8 0.9 1.4
Missing data 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0

D. Characteristics of Children "Waiting for Adoption" 11 (AFCARS Foster Care File)

Children Waiting for Adoption
  2016 2017 2018 2019 2020
Total waiting children 3,092 3,711 3,763 3,411 3,212
Number of waiting children whose parents' rights have been terminated 1,612 2,068 2,256 1,958 1,768

11 There is no federal definition for a child waiting to be adopted. The definition used in the tables on this page includes children and youth through age 17 who have a goal of adoption and/or whose parents' parental rights have been terminated. It excludes children 16 years old and older whose parents' parental rights have been terminated and who have a goal of emancipation. A state's own definition may differ from that used here.  Back

Age of Children Waiting for Adoption (%) 12
  2016 2017 2018 2019 2020
Under 1 year 2.0 2.2 1.6 1.6 1.2
1 year 9.2 7.9 6.7 6.9 6.3
2 years 10.0 10.6 10.1 10.1 8.7
3 years 9.5 9.0 9.7 9.1 8.3
4 years 8.0 7.7 7.9 8.0 8.8
5 years 7.8 7.7 6.8 6.7 7.4
6 years 6.3 6.6 5.8 6.4 5.6
7 years 5.7 5.8 6.8 5.9 6.0
8 years 6.2 5.4 5.5 5.6 6.0
9 years 5.2 5.6 6.4 5.7 5.2
10 years 5.5 5.4 5.4 5.4 5.5
11 years 5.1 4.9 4.9 4.9 5.2
12 years 3.7 4.8 4.4 4.6 5.0
13 years 4.4 3.4 4.7 4.4 4.6
14 years 3.3 3.9 3.6 4.4 4.5
15 years 3.2 3.3 3.6 3.5 4.2
16 years 2.8 3.4 3.2 4.1 3.5
17 years 2.1 2.3 2.9 2.6 3.9

12 Children older than 17 years fall outside of the definition used to identify waiting children and are therefore excluded from this table.  Back

Race/Ethnicity of Children Waiting for Adoption (%)
  2016 2017 2018 2019 2020
Alaska Native / American Indian <.1 <.1 <.1 <.1 <.1
Asian 0.5 0.3 0.6 0.3 0.4
Black 44.9 42.6 41.6 36.8 39.6
Native Hawaiian / Other Pacific Islander 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0
Hispanic (of any race) 15.8 15.7 14.1 13.8 13.0
White 32.5 35.6 37.5 41.8 38.1
Two or more races 5.5 4.6 5.7 6.6 7.9
Unknown 0.8 1.2 0.6 0.7 0.9
Missing data 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0

E. Characteristics of Children Adopted (AFCARS Adoption File)

Children Adopted
  2016 2017 2018 2019 2020
Total children adopted 1,917 2,077 2,628 2,849 2,087
Age of Children Adopted (%)
  2016 2017 2018 2019 2020
Under 1 year 1.3 1.0 1.4 1.1 1.1
1 year 10.2 10.8 9.0 8.0 9.1
2 years 14.7 15.3 13.7 12.6 14.3
3 years 11.7 11.7 12.3 12.0 12.4
4 years 9.9 10.1 9.8 9.7 9.7
5 years 8.1 8.8 8.9 8.3 8.7
6 years 7.2 7.2 7.4 6.6 6.7
7 years 6.2 6.0 6.2 6.3 6.4
8 years 6.4 4.8 5.7 6.8 5.6
9 years 5.9 5.2 4.8 5.0 4.6
10 years 4.8 4.0 3.9 5.2 4.0
11 years 3.1 3.8 4.1 4.1 3.5
12 years 2.7 3.2 3.7 3.4 3.1
13 years 2.3 2.3 2.9 3.0 2.8
14 years 1.8 1.8 1.7 2.4 2.1
15 years 1.4 1.1 2.1 1.9 2.0
16 years 1.1 1.0 1.0 1.5 1.9
17 years 0.8 1.2 1.1 1.1 1.1
18 years 0.3 0.5 0.3 0.5 0.6
19 years 0.2 0.1 <.1 0.2 0.2
20+ years <.1 <.1 <.1 0.2 0.1
Race/Ethnicity of Children Adopted (%)
  2016 2017 2018 2019 2020
Alaska Native / American Indian <.1 <.1 <.1 <.1 <.1
Asian 0.1 0.4 0.4 0.5 <.1
Black 22.5 29.6 28.9 32.3 22.5
Native Hawaiian / Other Pacific Islander 0.1 <.1 0.0 0.0 0.0
Hispanic (of any race) 12.9 14.3 15.5 11.9 12.8
White 55.8 46.2 46.9 47.2 57.2
Two or more races 7.3 8.6 7.8 7.1 6.9
Unknown 1.2 0.8 0.4 0.9 0.5
Missing data 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0

Pennsylvania [Outcomes Data]

Reduce Recurrence of Child Abuse and/or Neglect (NCANDS)

Recurrence of Maltreatment Within 12 Months (%)
  2015-2016 2016-2017 2017-2018 2018-2019 2019-2020
Children without a recurrence DQ* DQ* DQ* DQ* DQ*
Children with one or more recurrences DQ* DQ* DQ* DQ* DQ*
Number DQ* DQ* DQ* DQ* DQ*

Reduce the Incidence of Child Abuse and/or Neglect in Foster Care (NCANDS and AFCARS Foster Care File)

2.1 Maltreatment in Foster Care (%)
  2016 2017 2018 2019 2020
Children maltreated while in foster care 0.14 0.20 0.11 0.14 0.18
Children not maltreated while in foster care 99.86 99.80 99.89 99.86 99.82
Number 25,822 26,552 26,497 25,584 22,416

Increase Permanency for Children in Foster Care (AFCARS Foster Care File)

3.1 Exits of Children From Foster Care (%)
  2016 2017 2018 2019 2020
Adoption 21.2 22.3 26.7 28.1 26.0
Guardianship 7.2 7.4 8.2 8.3 8.5
Reunification 52.9 55.8 52.1 48.3 49.7
Other 18.6 14.5 12.9 15.2 15.8
Missing data 0.1 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0
Number 9,736 9,661 9,931 10,058 8,062
Exits of Children With a Diagnosed Disability (%)
  2016 2017 2018 2019 2020
Adoption 19.6 20.6 DQ* 25.3 20.5
Guardianship 6.3 6.3 DQ* 9.0 11.7
Reunification 43.8 47.8 DQ* 39.5 42.3
Other 30.0 25.2 DQ* 26.2 25.5
Missing data 0.4 0.0 DQ* 0.0 0.0
Number 2,043 2,001 DQ* 2,252 1,806
Exits of Children Older than Age 12 at Entry Into Foster Care (%)
  2016 2017 2018 2019 2020
Adoption 1.5 1.4 2.3 2.9 2.6
Guardianship 6.6 7.9 8.8 8.7 7.8
Reunification 56.3 57.8 54.6 47.9 48.1
Other 35.2 32.9 34.3 40.5 41.6
Missing data 0.4 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0
Number 3,567 3,376 3,115 3,158 2,541
Exits to Emancipation (%)
  2016 2017 2018 2019 2020
Children age 12 or younger at entry 11.4 8.5 8.0 7.2 7.3
Children older than 12 at entry 88.6 91.5 92.0 92.8 92.7
Missing data 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0
Number 760 874 836 1,085 921
Exits by Race/Ethnicity (%)
  Alaska Native / American Indian Asian Black (non-Hispanic)
  2016 2017 2018 2019 2020 2016 2017 2018 2019 2020 2016 2017 2018 2019 2020
Adoption 18.2 11.1 13.3 0.0 0.0 6.1 24.3 26.3 26.5 5.6 15.7 19.5 23.5 28.4 19.8
Guardianship 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 3.0 8.1 5.3 12.2 8.3 7.0 6.6 6.8 7.7 8.6
Reunification 54.5 77.8 66.7 0.0 66.7 45.5 40.5 47.4 49.0 63.9 47.6 52.8 50.1 42.6 46.6
Other 27.3 11.1 20.0 100.0 33.3 45.5 27.0 21.1 12.2 22.2 29.4 21.1 19.6 21.3 25.0
Missing data 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.3 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0
Number 11 9 15 1 3 33 37 38 49 36 3,302 3,378 3,239 3,223 2,396
Exits by Race/Ethnicity (%)
  Native Hawaiian/Other Pac. Is. Hispanic (of any race) White (non-Hispanic)
  2016 2017 2018 2019 2020 2016 2017 2018 2019 2020 2016 2017 2018 2019 2020
Adoption 33.3 50.0 0.0 0.0 25.0 21.9 23.9 32.7 27.0 28.0 24.6 22.9 26.9 28.1 29.7
Guardianship 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 5.9 6.5 4.6 6.9 6.6 7.9 8.4 10.3 9.2 8.6
Reunification 50.0 50.0 80.0 0.0 25.0 51.9 55.4 48.8 49.5 47.0 56.4 58.6 54.2 51.1 51.7
Other 16.7 0.0 20.0 0.0 50.0 20.1 14.2 14.0 16.5 18.4 11.1 10.1 8.6 11.6 10.0
Missing data 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.3 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 <.1 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0
Number 6 2 5 0 4 1,313 1,266 1,288 1,302 1,000 4,435 4,244 4,580 4,625 3,938
Exits by Race/Ethnicity (%)
  Unable to Determine Two or More Races Missing Data
  2016 2017 2018 2019 2020 2016 2017 2018 2019 2020 2016 2017 2018 2019 2020
Adoption 14.2 13.3 17.8 30.1 19.0 28.7 31.5 30.6 28.8 26.1 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0
Guardianship 3.9 4.4 9.6 7.5 11.4 6.5 7.2 8.2 7.8 10.6 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0
Reunification 63.8 60.2 61.6 54.8 53.2 56.6 54.1 52.7 52.9 52.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0
Other 18.1 22.1 11.0 7.5 16.5 8.3 7.2 8.5 10.5 11.4 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0
Missing data 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0
Number 127 113 73 93 79 509 612 693 765 606 0 0 0 0 0

Reduce Time to Reunification Without Increasing Reentry (AFCARS Foster Care File)

Time to Reunification (%)
  2016 2017 2018 2019 2020
Less than 12 mos. 72.7 71.8 71.7 68.8 66.2
At least 12 mos., but less than 24 mos. 20.0 19.9 20.1 21.3 24.3
At least 24 mos., but less than 36 mos. 4.8 5.6 5.0 6.8 6.9
At least 36 mos., but less than 48 mos. 1.3 1.5 1.9 1.7 1.7
48 or more mos. 1.0 1.3 1.1 1.4 0.8
Missing data 0.2 <.1 <.1 <.1 0.0
Number 5,150 5,394 5,175 4,860 4,007
Children Reentering Foster Care (%)
  2016 2017 2018 2019 2020
Children entering care for the first time 78.2 79.3 77.0 78.5 77.3
Children reentering care within 12 mos. of a prior episode 13.9 13.3 14.6 13.6 14.2
Children reentering care more than 12 mos. after a prior episode 7.9 7.4 8.5 7.9 8.5
Missing data <.1 <.1 0.0 <.1 0.0
Number 10,899 10,998 10,155 9,528 7,254

Reduce Time in Foster Care to Adoption (AFCARS Foster Care File)

Time to Adoption (%)
  2016 2017 2018 2019 2020
Less than 12 mos. 2.5 2.9 2.6 2.6 2.5
At least 12 mos., but less than 24 mos. 29.1 28.7 26.6 23.8 24.6
At least 24 mos., but less than 36 mos. 38.1 37.3 36.8 36.3 44.3
At least 36 mos., but less than 48 mos. 18.6 18.8 21.4 22.9 18.0
48 or more mos. 11.7 12.3 12.6 14.3 10.7
Missing data 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0
Number 2,066 2,153 2,653 2,829 2,100

Increase Placement Stability (AFCARS Foster Care File)

Number of Placements by Time in Care (%)
  In Care Less Than 12 Months In Care at Least 12 months but Less Than 24 months In Care for 24 Months or Longer Time in Care Missing or Out of Range
  2016 2017 2018 2019 2020 2016 2017 2018 2019 2020 2016 2017 2018 2019 2020 2016 2017 2018 2019 2020
Children with 2 or fewer placements 86.8 87.1 87.9 86.8 89.1 68.0 68.5 69.4 70.4 72.2 43.3 44.1 46.3 47.3 50.2 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0
Children with 3 or more placements 13.2 12.9 12.1 13.2 10.8 32.0 31.5 30.6 29.6 27.8 56.7 55.9 53.7 52.7 49.8 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0
Missing Placement setting counts <.1 <.1 0.0 0.0 <.1 <.1 <.1 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0
Total number 12,425 12,647 11,763 10,961 8,543 6,726 6,679 6,981 6,660 6,317 6,593 7,220 7,742 7,920 7,533 78 6 11 43 23

Reduce Placement of Young Children in Group Homes or Institutions (AFCARS Foster Care File)

Most Recent Placement Settings of Children Who Entered Care During the Fiscal Year and Were Age 12 or Younger at the Time of This Placement (%)
  2016 2017 2018 2019 2020
Group homes 1.6 1.8 2.0 1.7 1.0
Institution 1.5 1.3 1.6 1.4 1.1
Other settings 96.4 96.2 96.4 96.9 97.9
Missing data 0.5 0.7 <.1 <.1 0.0
Number 7,047 7,398 6,895 6,574 5,072