Ohio

Ohio [Context Data]

A. Context Statistics 1 2

General Child Population (Census Bureau) 3
  2016 2017 2018 2019 2020
Total children under 18 years 2,619,236 2,609,137 2,595,584 2,581,403 2,568,641
Race/ethnicity (%) 4
Alaska Native / American Indian 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.1
Asian 2.3 2.4 2.5 2.6 2.7
Black 14.9 15.0 15.1 15.2 15.2
Native Hawaiian / Other Pacific Islander <.1 <.1 <.1 <.1 <.1
Hispanic (of any race) 6.0 6.2 6.4 6.6 6.7
White 71.9 71.4 70.8 70.4 70.1
Two or more races 4.7 4.8 4.9 5.0 5.1
Child population in poverty (%) 20.5 20.1 19.5 18.4 16.8
Child Welfare Summary 5
  2016 2017 2018 2019 2020
Child maltreatment victims 23,635 24,897 25,158 25,470 23,691
Foster care entry rate 4.1 4.5 4.7 4.8 4.2
Children in foster care on 9/30 13,725 14,961 15,730 16,387 16,017
Children adopted 1,449 1,538 1,566 1,665 1,466
Caseworker Visits 6
  2016 2017 2018 2019 2020
Children receiving monthly visits (%) 95 96 96 96 96
Numerator 142,343 154,896 166,321 169,116 173,766
Denominator 149,285 161,438 173,207 175,842 181,741
Children receiving visits in the home (%) 88 88 86 85 82
Numerator 125,521 135,571 142,607 144,458 141,673
Denominator 142,343 154,896 166,321 169,116 173,766

1 The source data for each table is indicated in parentheses for each section. A calendar year is the basis for data from the Census Bureau. Most of the other data on these pages are from the National Child Abuse and Neglect Data System (NCANDS) or the Adoption and Foster Care Analysis and Reporting System (AFCARS) and are based on the federal fiscal year, October 1 through September 30.  Back
2 Data that did not meet the quality standards for inclusion in the report are represented as DQ*. Incomplete data excluded from inclusion in the report are represented as --. For additional information on the data quality thresholds for the Child Welfare Outcomes Report, please reference the full report or the Child Welfare Outcomes data site.  Back
3 The total child population and data on race/ethnicity represent estimates from the Census Bureau https://www.census.gov/data/tables.html . Child poverty data are from the Census Bureau's American Community Survey (ACS). Due to the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic, the 2020 poverty estimates are not available on data.census.gov. The 2020 poverty estimates are considered experimental and can be found on the ACS Experimental Data webpage: https://www.census.gov/programs-surveys/acs/data/experimental-data.html.  Back
4 For race/ethnicity tables, all races exclude children of Hispanic origin. The Child Welfare Outcomes Report data site http://cwoutcomes.acf.hhs.gov/cwodatasite provides alternative race/ethnicity breakdowns in which race and ethnicity are treated as two separate categories.  Back
5 A child victim is defined as a child for whom the state determined at least one maltreatment was substantiated or indicated. This includes a child who died of child abuse and neglect. This is a change from prior years when children with dispositions of alternative response victim were included as victims. The rate for foster care entry is per 1,000 children in the state population. Data on child maltreatment victims are from NCANDS. Data on foster care entry rate, children in foster care on 9/30, and children adopted are from AFCARS.  Back
6 The reporting population subject to the caseworker visits requirements includes all children under age 18 for at least the first day of the FY (October 1) who have been in foster care for at least one full calendar month during the FY. All states have the option of using an approved sampling procedure for the caseworker visits reporting requirement.  Back

B. Child Maltreatment Data (National Child Abuse and Neglect Data System [NCANDS]) 7

Overview Maltreatment Information 8
  2016 2017 2018 2019 2020
  Number Rate Number Rate Number Rate Number Rate Number Rate
Children subject of an investigated report alleging child maltreatment 103,868 39.7 per 1,000 107,992 41.4 per 1,000 110,550 42.6 per 1,000 113,071 43.8 per 1,000 104,750 40.8 per 1,000
Total child maltreatment victims 23,635 9.0 per 1,000 24,897 9.5 per 1,000 25,158 9.7 per 1,000 25,470 9.9 per 1,000 23,691 9.2 per 1,000
Child Fatalities 66 2.5 per 100,000 73 2.8 per 100,000 106 4.1 per 100,000 79 3.1 per 100,000 94 3.7 per 100,000
Age of Child Victims (%)
  2016 2017 2018 2019 2020
Under 1 year 13.9 14.1 14.8 16.5 17.2
1 year 6.1 6.1 5.9 5.9 6.1
2 years 6.1 6.0 5.9 5.4 5.7
3 years 6.0 6.2 6.1 5.7 5.6
4 years 5.7 6.2 5.6 5.4 5.4
5 years 5.6 5.7 5.9 5.3 5.4
6 years 5.9 5.7 5.6 5.6 5.4
7 years 5.9 5.6 5.3 5.3 4.9
8 years 5.6 5.3 5.4 4.8 4.6
9 years 4.9 5.1 5.0 4.8 4.5
10 years 4.6 5.0 5.0 4.9 4.6
11 years 4.3 4.3 4.6 4.6 4.6
12 years 4.5 4.5 4.4 5.0 4.8
13 years 4.5 4.4 4.5 4.7 5.0
14 years 4.9 4.6 4.6 4.5 4.7
15 years 4.7 4.5 4.6 4.4 4.9
16 years 3.7 3.7 3.8 3.8 3.6
17 years 2.8 2.6 2.7 2.8 2.7
18+ years <.1 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.1
Missing data 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.3 0.2
Number 23,635 24,897 25,158 25,470 23,691
Race/Ethnicity of Child Victims (%)
  2016 2017 2018 2019 2020
Alaska Native / American Indian <.1 0.0 <.1 <.1 <.1
Asian 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.3
Black 24.4 24.6 25.1 25.7 24.5
Native Hawaiian / Other Pacific Islander <.1 0.0 <.1 <.1 <.1
Hispanic (of any race) 5.4 5.6 6.0 5.7 6.3
White 59.9 59.0 58.3 56.7 56.4
Two or more races 8.8 8.9 8.6 9.3 10.1
Missing data 1.3 1.6 1.8 2.2 2.4
Number 23,635 24,897 25,158 25,470 23,691
Maltreatment Types of Child Victims (%) 9
  2016 2017 2018 2019 2020
Emotional abuse 3.5 3.8 5.9 6.7 7.1
Medical neglect 1.9 2.1 1.8 2.0 1.6
Neglect 47.3 48.4 48.3 49.2 47.5
Physical abuse 47.5 50.5 48.3 47.8 50.6
Sexual abuse 19.6 18.0 18.2 18.3 18.5
Sex trafficking 0.0 0.0 0.1 <.1 0.1
Missing data 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0
Other 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0
Number 23,635 24,897 25,158 25,470 23,691
Time to Investigation (in hours) 10
  2016 2017 2018 2019 2020
Mean 35.4 28.2 26.7 27.0 23.9
Median <24 <24 <24 <24 <24

7 The unique count of child victims counts a child only once regardless of the number of times he or she was found to be a victim during the reporting year.  Back
8 The rates for Child Protective Services responses and victims are per 1,000 children under age 18; for fatalities, the rate is per 100,000 children under age 18.  Back
9 These percentages are calculated against the number of unique victims. A child may have been the victim of more than one type of maltreatment, or the same type of maltreatment more than once. As a result, the total percentages both within and across maltreatment categories may exceed 100.  Back
10 Response time is defined as the time between the report of suspected maltreatment and the first face-to-face contact with the alleged victim or with another person who can provide information on the allegation.  Back

C. Characteristics of Children in Foster Care (Adoption and Foster Care Analysis and Reporting System [AFCARS] Foster Care File)

Overview Foster Care Information
  In Foster Care on 10/1 FY Entered Foster Care in FY Exited Foster Care in FY In Foster Care on 9/30 FY
  2016 2017 2018 2019 2020 2016 2017 2018 2019 2020 2016 2017 2018 2019 2020 2016 2017 2018 2019 2020
Total number 12,874 13,350 14,419 15,030 15,755 10,772 11,845 12,325 12,410 10,720 9,921 10,234 11,014 11,053 10,458 13,725 14,961 15,730 16,387 16,017
Median length of stay (months) 10.8 10.6 10.0 10.5 10.6 N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A 11.0 10.8 10.8 11.5 11.8 10.4 9.8 10.4 10.5 12.4
Age of Children in Foster Care (%)
  In Foster Care on 10/1 FY Entered Foster Care in FY Exited Foster Care in FY In Foster Care on 9/30 FY
  2016 2017 2018 2019 2020 2016 2017 2018 2019 2020 2016 2017 2018 2019 2020 2016 2017 2018 2019 2020
Under 1 year 8.3 7.9 8.0 8.1 8.5 16.9 16.7 17.6 17.4 18.4 6.2 6.0 6.5 5.9 5.8 7.8 7.9 7.9 8.3 7.6
1 year 8.1 8.4 8.6 8.7 8.1 6.5 6.9 6.4 6.4 6.7 8.1 8.4 8.4 8.6 8.5 8.4 8.5 8.5 8.0 8.5
2 years 6.7 7.2 7.0 6.7 6.9 6.1 6.1 5.9 5.4 5.3 7.3 7.6 8.0 7.4 7.0 7.2 7.0 6.6 6.8 7.1
3 years 5.6 5.8 5.9 6.3 6.0 5.5 5.6 5.6 5.3 4.6 5.7 6.3 6.4 6.3 6.0 5.9 5.9 6.1 5.8 5.9
4 years 5.5 5.6 5.8 5.5 5.5 5.1 5.1 5.1 4.8 4.7 5.1 5.6 5.7 5.7 5.5 5.6 5.8 5.4 5.4 5.4
5 years 4.9 5.2 5.4 5.1 4.9 4.7 4.8 4.8 4.5 4.2 4.9 4.9 5.4 5.2 5.2 5.3 5.3 5.0 4.9 4.6
6 years 5.2 4.7 4.9 5.0 4.8 4.4 4.7 4.5 4.3 4.3 4.9 5.0 5.1 4.8 4.6 4.8 4.9 4.9 4.7 4.5
7 years 4.6 4.8 4.7 4.5 4.5 4.5 4.4 4.0 4.0 3.6 4.5 4.5 4.8 4.5 4.6 4.9 4.6 4.4 4.4 4.4
8 years 4.4 4.4 4.6 4.5 4.3 3.7 4.0 4.2 3.8 3.4 4.2 4.1 4.3 4.2 4.0 4.3 4.5 4.4 4.2 4.1
9 years 4.1 4.1 4.6 4.4 4.2 3.5 3.9 3.5 3.8 3.6 4.1 4.0 4.2 4.2 4.0 4.1 4.5 4.2 4.1 3.9
10 years 4.0 3.9 4.1 4.3 4.1 3.5 3.8 3.8 3.7 3.4 3.6 3.4 3.9 4.0 3.7 3.9 4.1 4.2 4.0 3.9
11 years 3.4 3.7 4.0 4.1 4.2 3.0 3.8 3.7 3.6 3.5 3.3 3.6 3.7 3.8 3.7 3.7 3.9 4.0 4.1 3.9
12 years 3.6 3.7 3.8 3.9 4.2 3.8 3.7 3.8 4.1 3.9 2.8 3.4 3.5 3.5 3.6 3.8 3.8 3.9 4.1 4.3
13 years 4.0 4.3 4.3 4.4 4.6 4.5 4.0 4.0 4.4 4.4 3.5 3.3 3.3 3.7 3.9 4.3 4.3 4.4 4.6 4.6
14 years 5.5 4.7 4.8 4.8 5.0 5.4 5.3 4.7 4.7 5.2 4.2 4.0 3.7 3.6 3.7 4.8 4.8 4.8 4.9 5.2
15 years 6.1 6.4 5.6 5.4 5.5 6.6 5.7 5.2 5.6 5.2 5.3 4.5 4.4 4.4 4.1 6.6 5.7 5.4 5.5 5.6
16 years 7.3 6.8 7.1 6.3 6.2 6.8 6.3 5.6 5.5 4.7 5.6 5.2 5.0 4.9 4.9 7.0 7.1 6.2 6.1 5.9
17 years 8.0 7.8 6.4 5.9 5.0 5.2 5.0 4.3 3.7 4.1 6.0 5.7 5.1 4.6 4.8 7.7 7.3 7.1 6.1 6.0
18 years 0.6 0.5 0.3 1.1 1.3 <.1 <.1 1.7 2.8 3.3 10.4 10.2 8.3 8.6 8.5 <.1 <.1 1.1 1.4 1.3
19 years 0.0 <.1 0.0 0.6 1.1 0.0 0.0 1.0 1.5 2.1 0.2 0.2 <.1 0.7 1.2 0.0 0.0 0.8 1.5 1.8
20+ years 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.5 1.0 0.0 0.0 0.6 0.9 1.2 0.0 0.0 <.1 0.3 1.0 0.0 0.0 0.6 1.1 1.5
Missing data 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 <.1 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 <.1 0.9 1.6 0.0 0.0 <.1 0.0 0.0
Race/Ethnicity of Children in Foster Care (%)
  In Foster Care on 10/1 FY Entered Foster Care in FY Exited Foster Care in FY In Foster Care on 9/30 FY
  2016 2017 2018 2019 2020 2016 2017 2018 2019 2020 2016 2017 2018 2019 2020 2016 2017 2018 2019 2020
Alaska Native / American Indian <.1 <.1 <.1 0.0 <.1 <.1 <.1 <.1 <.1 <.1 <.1 <.1 <.1 0.0 0.0 <.1 <.1 <.1 <.1 <.1
Asian <.1 0.2 0.1 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.3 0.3 0.2 0.2 0.1 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.2
Black 29.1 29.8 29.3 30.2 31.3 30.0 29.5 29.9 30.6 28.4 28.8 30.2 28.8 28.9 30.7 30.0 29.3 30.1 31.3 29.7
Native Hawaiian / Other Pacific Islander <.1 <.1 <.1 <.1 <.1 <.1 <.1 <.1 <.1 <.1 <.1 <.1 <.1 <.1 <.1 <.1 <.1 <.1 <.1 <.1
Hispanic (of any race) 5.0 5.1 5.3 5.3 5.6 5.4 5.2 5.9 5.9 5.8 5.4 5.2 5.9 5.9 5.2 5.0 5.2 5.3 5.4 5.9
White 53.9 53.1 52.9 52.3 50.3 52.7 53.1 52.5 51.0 52.4 53.8 53.2 53.0 53.5 51.8 53.0 53.0 52.5 50.5 50.7
Two or more races 11.5 11.5 11.9 11.7 12.4 10.8 11.0 10.5 11.2 12.4 11.2 10.7 11.3 10.9 11.6 11.1 11.7 11.3 11.9 12.9
Unknown 0.1 0.1 0.2 0.1 0.1 0.3 0.2 0.3 0.3 0.2 0.2 0.1 0.3 0.1 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.3 0.1
Missing data 0.1 0.1 0.3 0.2 0.1 0.5 0.7 0.6 0.6 0.4 0.3 0.3 0.5 0.3 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.4 0.4 0.3

D. Characteristics of Children "Waiting for Adoption" 11 (AFCARS Foster Care File)

Children Waiting for Adoption
  2016 2017 2018 2019 2020
Total waiting children 3,201 3,373 3,579 3,677 3,472
Number of waiting children whose parents' rights have been terminated 2,730 2,936 3,117 3,290 3,269

11 There is no federal definition for a child waiting to be adopted. The definition used in the tables on this page includes children and youth through age 17 who have a goal of adoption and/or whose parents' parental rights have been terminated. It excludes children 16 years old and older whose parents' parental rights have been terminated and who have a goal of emancipation. A state's own definition may differ from that used here.  Back

Age of Children Waiting for Adoption (%) 12
  2016 2017 2018 2019 2020
Under 1 year 2.0 2.3 2.4 2.6 1.8
1 year 7.3 7.1 7.1 6.4 6.8
2 years 8.1 6.8 6.0 6.7 6.9
3 years 5.3 5.5 5.4 5.8 6.3
4 years 5.4 5.6 4.9 5.2 5.1
5 years 5.2 5.7 5.0 5.0 5.2
6 years 4.6 4.8 5.5 4.4 4.6
7 years 5.3 4.9 4.4 6.0 4.4
8 years 4.6 5.5 5.1 4.0 5.0
9 years 5.2 5.2 5.4 5.2 4.4
10 years 4.7 5.0 5.8 4.9 4.6
11 years 4.8 4.4 5.2 5.4 4.8
12 years 5.0 4.9 5.0 5.5 5.7
13 years 5.3 5.4 5.2 5.8 5.5
14 years 5.5 5.8 6.0 5.8 6.4
15 years 7.7 6.4 6.8 7.6 7.4
16 years 7.3 7.9 7.3 7.2 8.0
17 years 6.6 6.9 7.3 6.5 7.1

12 Children older than 17 years fall outside of the definition used to identify waiting children and are therefore excluded from this table.  Back

Race/Ethnicity of Children Waiting for Adoption (%)
  2016 2017 2018 2019 2020
Alaska Native / American Indian <.1 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.2
Asian 0.2 0.3 0.3 0.1 0.2
Black 29.1 27.8 27.0 27.8 27.5
Native Hawaiian / Other Pacific Islander 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0
Hispanic (of any race) 4.1 5.0 4.8 5.3 5.4
White 55.6 54.1 55.7 53.2 52.6
Two or more races 10.7 12.5 11.9 13.3 14.0
Unknown 0.2 <.1 0.1 0.1 <.1
Missing data <.1 0.1 0.2 <.1 <.1

E. Characteristics of Children Adopted (AFCARS Adoption File)

Children Adopted
  2016 2017 2018 2019 2020
Total children adopted 1,449 1,538 1,566 1,665 1,466
Age of Children Adopted (%)
  2016 2017 2018 2019 2020
Under 1 year 2.5 2.3 2.6 2.0 2.0
1 year 12.4 12.7 14.2 12.4 10.9
2 years 13.5 16.1 14.9 14.0 14.2
3 years 11.2 10.7 10.1 8.3 10.5
4 years 8.1 6.7 7.4 8.0 7.6
5 years 7.4 6.5 7.8 7.1 7.1
6 years 7.5 5.9 6.4 6.8 6.3
7 years 7.0 6.0 4.9 5.8 5.9
8 years 4.5 4.7 5.8 4.7 5.3
9 years 4.9 5.0 5.7 5.2 4.7
10 years 3.5 4.9 4.2 5.0 4.0
11 years 4.3 4.1 3.5 4.7 4.5
12 years 2.1 3.4 3.1 3.2 3.6
13 years 3.3 2.5 2.5 3.2 4.4
14 years 1.8 2.3 2.6 2.4 1.8
15 years 1.9 2.0 1.3 2.1 2.4
16 years 1.9 2.2 1.4 2.3 2.2
17 years 1.6 1.6 1.5 2.4 2.5
18 years 0.6 0.3 0.3 0.4 0.1
19 years 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0
20+ years 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0
Race/Ethnicity of Children Adopted (%)
  2016 2017 2018 2019 2020
Alaska Native / American Indian <.1 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0
Asian 0.0 0.1 0.1 0.4 <.1
Black 17.4 19.3 18.3 17.9 18.1
Native Hawaiian / Other Pacific Islander 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0
Hispanic (of any race) 6.5 3.8 6.1 4.7 6.3
White 62.4 64.0 59.7 63.2 59.9
Two or more races 13.2 12.3 15.3 13.7 14.8
Unknown 0.1 0.1 <.1 <.1 0.1
Missing data 0.3 0.3 0.4 <.1 0.6

Ohio [Outcomes Data]

Reduce Recurrence of Child Abuse and/or Neglect (NCANDS)

Recurrence of Maltreatment Within 12 Months (%)
  2015-2016 2016-2017 2017-2018 2018-2019 2019-2020
Children without a recurrence 90.5 90.9 90.3 89.9 90.4
Children with one or more recurrences 9.5 9.1 9.7 10.1 9.6
Number 23,240 23,454 24,896 25,052 25,429

Reduce the Incidence of Child Abuse and/or Neglect in Foster Care (NCANDS and AFCARS Foster Care File)

2.1 Maltreatment in Foster Care (%)
  2016 2017 2018 2019 2020
Children maltreated while in foster care 0.52 0.42 0.43 0.49 0.37
Children not maltreated while in foster care 99.48 99.58 99.57 99.51 99.63
Number 23,646 25,195 26,744 27,440 26,475

Increase Permanency for Children in Foster Care (AFCARS Foster Care File)

3.1 Exits of Children From Foster Care (%)
  2016 2017 2018 2019 2020
Adoption 14.5 14.7 13.8 14.8 13.7
Guardianship 3.9 4.3 4.5 4.6 4.5
Reunification 69.4 68.9 71.6 68.2 68.1
Other 11.2 11.2 9.3 11.2 13.1
Missing data 1.0 0.9 0.7 1.2 0.6
Number 9,921 10,234 11,014 11,053 10,458
Exits of Children With a Diagnosed Disability (%)
  2016 2017 2018 2019 2020
Adoption 23.4 23.9 22.4 23.6 22.4
Guardianship 3.1 3.1 3.5 3.9 3.0
Reunification 52.9 51.5 55.9 51.6 49.6
Other 19.8 20.9 17.7 20.1 24.3
Missing data 0.8 0.7 0.5 0.8 0.7
Number 2,857 3,047 3,110 3,106 3,048
Exits of Children Older than Age 12 at Entry Into Foster Care (%)
  2016 2017 2018 2019 2020
Adoption 1.2 1.5 1.4 1.6 2.0
Guardianship 3.2 3.9 3.8 3.9 4.0
Reunification 62.7 58.6 61.6 55.3 51.3
Other 31.5 34.7 32.3 37.9 42.0
Missing data 1.4 1.3 0.9 1.4 0.7
Number 2,918 2,864 2,791 2,956 2,969
Exits to Emancipation (%)
  2016 2017 2018 2019 2020
Children age 12 or younger at entry 17.2 13.3 12.7 9.0 8.3
Children older than 12 at entry 82.8 86.7 87.3 91.0 91.7
Missing data 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0
Number 1,027 1,030 902 1,127 1,265
Exits by Race/Ethnicity (%)
  Alaska Native / American Indian Asian Black (non-Hispanic)
  2016 2017 2018 2019 2020 2016 2017 2018 2019 2020 2016 2017 2018 2019 2020
Adoption 33.3 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 4.5 12.5 22.2 0.0 8.8 9.4 8.8 9.3 8.2
Guardianship 0.0 0.0 25.0 0.0 0.0 6.7 0.0 0.0 3.7 7.7 2.6 3.3 3.2 3.3 2.9
Reunification 66.7 100.0 75.0 0.0 0.0 80.0 81.8 81.3 70.4 84.6 72.4 71.9 74.9 70.9 71.6
Other 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 13.3 13.6 6.3 3.7 7.7 14.9 14.1 11.9 14.7 16.7
Missing data 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 1.3 1.3 1.1 1.8 0.7
Number 3 3 4 0 0 15 22 16 27 26 2,857 3,091 3,173 3,195 3,212
Exits by Race/Ethnicity (%)
  Native Hawaiian/Other Pac. Is. Hispanic (of any race) White (non-Hispanic)
  2016 2017 2018 2019 2020 2016 2017 2018 2019 2020 2016 2017 2018 2019 2020
Adoption 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 17.4 10.9 14.7 12.0 16.8 16.8 17.8 15.5 17.4 16.0
Guardianship 0.0 20.0 11.1 11.1 0.0 5.0 4.0 6.5 4.5 4.4 4.3 4.4 4.8 5.1 5.0
Reunification 100.0 60.0 88.9 88.9 100.0 65.3 73.6 71.5 72.5 68.1 68.0 66.9 70.3 66.3 66.5
Other 0.0 20.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 10.9 10.9 7.1 10.3 10.7 10.1 10.2 8.7 10.2 11.8
Missing data 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 1.3 0.6 0.3 0.8 0.0 0.9 0.7 0.7 0.9 0.7
Number 6 5 9 9 3 539 530 648 651 542 5,338 5,446 5,840 5,917 5,420
Exits by Race/Ethnicity (%)
  Unable to Determine Two or More Races Missing Data
  2016 2017 2018 2019 2020 2016 2017 2018 2019 2020 2016 2017 2018 2019 2020
Adoption 11.8 15.4 3.6 6.7 10.0 17.0 16.8 19.1 18.8 17.6 3.2 6.9 5.5 3.1 0.0
Guardianship 5.9 7.7 0.0 6.7 0.0 5.4 6.6 5.7 5.7 6.3 3.2 13.8 0.0 3.1 4.5
Reunification 82.4 69.2 89.3 86.7 90.0 69.4 67.6 67.7 66.8 65.1 83.9 75.9 89.1 84.4 86.4
Other 0.0 7.7 7.1 0.0 0.0 7.1 8.6 7.2 7.4 10.6 9.7 3.4 5.5 9.4 9.1
Missing data 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 1.1 0.5 0.3 1.3 0.3 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0
Number 17 13 28 15 20 1,115 1,095 1,241 1,207 1,213 31 29 55 32 22

Reduce Time to Reunification Without Increasing Reentry (AFCARS Foster Care File)

Time to Reunification (%)
  2016 2017 2018 2019 2020
Less than 12 mos. 68.4 69.1 67.9 64.1 61.5
At least 12 mos., but less than 24 mos. 25.3 25.3 26.1 30.0 31.2
At least 24 mos., but less than 36 mos. 5.3 4.4 5.0 5.2 6.2
At least 36 mos., but less than 48 mos. 0.7 0.9 0.7 0.5 0.9
48 or more mos. 0.3 0.3 0.3 0.2 0.3
Missing data 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0
Number 6,884 7,050 7,884 7,534 7,125
Children Reentering Foster Care (%)
  2016 2017 2018 2019 2020
Children entering care for the first time 77.9 79.5 77.0 75.5 74.2
Children reentering care within 12 mos. of a prior episode 9.7 8.9 10.9 12.6 13.6
Children reentering care more than 12 mos. after a prior episode 12.4 11.6 12.1 11.8 12.2
Missing data <.1 <.1 <.1 <.1 <.1
Number 10,772 11,845 12,325 12,410 10,720

Reduce Time in Foster Care to Adoption (AFCARS Foster Care File)

Time to Adoption (%)
  2016 2017 2018 2019 2020
Less than 12 mos. 3.8 4.2 4.5 3.4 3.0
At least 12 mos., but less than 24 mos. 26.2 27.2 27.6 27.3 22.3
At least 24 mos., but less than 36 mos. 33.7 35.8 35.5 33.9 39.7
At least 36 mos., but less than 48 mos. 18.6 18.6 18.5 18.2 21.0
48 or more mos. 17.7 14.1 13.8 17.3 14.0
Missing data 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0
Number 1,435 1,509 1,524 1,640 1,434

Increase Placement Stability (AFCARS Foster Care File)

Number of Placements by Time in Care (%)
  In Care Less Than 12 Months In Care at Least 12 months but Less Than 24 months In Care for 24 Months or Longer Time in Care Missing or Out of Range
  2016 2017 2018 2019 2020 2016 2017 2018 2019 2020 2016 2017 2018 2019 2020 2016 2017 2018 2019 2020
Children with 2 or fewer placements 88.5 89.2 88.9 89.3 88.5 69.9 70.3 70.2 70.7 71.7 41.7 44.9 44.8 44.0 46.2 97.1 100.0 100.0 98.1 94.6
Children with 3 or more placements 11.4 10.7 10.9 10.5 11.3 30.1 29.7 29.8 29.3 28.3 58.3 55.1 55.2 56.0 53.8 2.9 0.0 0.0 1.9 2.7
Missing Placement setting counts 0.1 0.1 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 2.7
Total number 12,919 14,175 14,962 14,838 13,103 5,850 6,121 6,761 7,257 7,471 4,842 4,887 5,016 5,292 5,864 35 12 5 53 37

Reduce Placement of Young Children in Group Homes or Institutions (AFCARS Foster Care File)

Most Recent Placement Settings of Children Who Entered Care During the Fiscal Year and Were Age 12 or Younger at the Time of This Placement (%)
  2016 2017 2018 2019 2020
Group homes 0.7 0.7 0.5 0.7 0.8
Institution 1.9 1.6 2.0 1.9 2.1
Other settings 97.3 97.6 97.4 97.3 97.1
Missing data <.1 <.1 <.1 <.1 <.1
Number 7,650 8,674 8,945 8,767 7,423