Minnesota

Minnesota [Context Data]

A. Context Statistics 1 2

General Child Population (Census Bureau) 3
  2016 2017 2018 2019 2020
Total children under 18 years 1,292,860 1,300,061 1,303,090 1,303,212 1,301,219
Race/ethnicity (%) 4
Alaska Native / American Indian 1.4 1.4 1.4 1.4 1.4
Asian 6.1 6.2 6.3 6.4 6.4
Black 9.2 9.6 10.0 10.3 10.4
Native Hawaiian / Other Pacific Islander <.1 <.1 <.1 <.1 <.1
Hispanic (of any race) 8.8 8.9 9.1 9.1 9.2
White 69.3 68.6 68.0 67.5 67.2
Two or more races 5.0 5.1 5.1 5.2 5.3
Child population in poverty (%) 12.7 11.8 11.7 11.2 9.5
Child Welfare Summary 5
  2016 2017 2018 2019 2020
Child maltreatment victims 7,941 8,709 7,785 6,780 6,647
Foster care entry rate 5.6 5.7 5.2 4.6 3.8
Children in foster care on 9/30 8,793 9,651 9,271 8,400 7,763
Children adopted 899 946 1,284 1,347 1,043
Caseworker Visits 6
  2016 2017 2018 2019 2020
Children receiving monthly visits (%) 78 79 80 82 83
Numerator 72,495 82,682 87,661 81,421 76,351
Denominator 92,850 104,700 108,899 99,236 91,959
Children receiving visits in the home (%) 88 87 87 87 87
Numerator 63,636 71,707 76,427 71,081 66,638
Denominator 72,495 82,682 87,661 81,421 76,351

1 The source data for each table is indicated in parentheses for each section. A calendar year is the basis for data from the Census Bureau. Most of the other data on these pages are from the National Child Abuse and Neglect Data System (NCANDS) or the Adoption and Foster Care Analysis and Reporting System (AFCARS) and are based on the federal fiscal year, October 1 through September 30.  Back
2 Data that did not meet the quality standards for inclusion in the report are represented as DQ*. Incomplete data excluded from inclusion in the report are represented as --. For additional information on the data quality thresholds for the Child Welfare Outcomes Report, please reference the full report or the Child Welfare Outcomes data site.  Back
3 The total child population and data on race/ethnicity represent estimates from the Census Bureau https://www.census.gov/data/tables.html . Child poverty data are from the Census Bureau's American Community Survey (ACS). Due to the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic, the 2020 poverty estimates are not available on data.census.gov. The 2020 poverty estimates are considered experimental and can be found on the ACS Experimental Data webpage: https://www.census.gov/programs-surveys/acs/data/experimental-data.html.  Back
4 For race/ethnicity tables, all races exclude children of Hispanic origin. The Child Welfare Outcomes Report data site http://cwoutcomes.acf.hhs.gov/cwodatasite provides alternative race/ethnicity breakdowns in which race and ethnicity are treated as two separate categories.  Back
5 A child victim is defined as a child for whom the state determined at least one maltreatment was substantiated or indicated. This includes a child who died of child abuse and neglect. This is a change from prior years when children with dispositions of alternative response victim were included as victims. The rate for foster care entry is per 1,000 children in the state population. Data on child maltreatment victims are from NCANDS. Data on foster care entry rate, children in foster care on 9/30, and children adopted are from AFCARS.  Back
6 The reporting population subject to the caseworker visits requirements includes all children under age 18 for at least the first day of the FY (October 1) who have been in foster care for at least one full calendar month during the FY. All states have the option of using an approved sampling procedure for the caseworker visits reporting requirement.  Back

B. Child Maltreatment Data (National Child Abuse and Neglect Data System [NCANDS]) 7

Overview Maltreatment Information 8
  2016 2017 2018 2019 2020
  Number Rate Number Rate Number Rate Number Rate Number Rate
Children subject of an investigated report alleging child maltreatment 38,816 30.0 per 1,000 40,697 31.3 per 1,000 39,581 30.4 per 1,000 38,690 29.7 per 1,000 36,274 27.9 per 1,000
Total child maltreatment victims 7,941 6.1 per 1,000 8,709 6.7 per 1,000 7,785 6.0 per 1,000 6,780 5.2 per 1,000 6,647 5.1 per 1,000
Child Fatalities 28 2.2 per 100,000 24 1.8 per 100,000 30 2.3 per 100,000 17 1.3 per 100,000 21 1.6 per 100,000
Age of Child Victims (%)
  2016 2017 2018 2019 2020
Under 1 year 13.8 15.0 15.5 14.9 14.5
1 year 6.3 6.7 6.8 6.3 6.2
2 years 6.1 6.7 6.4 6.5 6.1
3 years 6.5 6.4 6.2 6.0 6.2
4 years 6.4 6.1 6.6 5.9 5.8
5 years 6.1 5.8 5.8 6.1 6.3
6 years 6.7 5.6 5.2 5.7 4.9
7 years 6.4 5.8 5.3 5.3 5.5
8 years 6.0 5.6 5.5 5.1 4.5
9 years 6.0 5.4 4.9 5.1 4.8
10 years 5.0 5.1 4.8 5.4 5.1
11 years 4.3 4.6 4.9 4.8 4.9
12 years 4.1 4.1 4.4 5.1 5.3
13 years 4.5 4.2 4.1 4.2 5.5
14 years 3.9 4.0 4.1 3.8 4.6
15 years 3.3 3.4 3.7 3.9 3.9
16 years 2.6 3.3 3.4 3.1 3.4
17 years 1.9 2.1 2.3 2.4 2.3
18+ years <.1 <.1 <.1 0.0 0.0
Missing data 0.2 0.2 0.1 0.2 0.3
Number 7,941 8,709 7,785 6,780 6,647
Race/Ethnicity of Child Victims (%)
  2016 2017 2018 2019 2020
Alaska Native / American Indian 7.1 9.2 8.8 7.4 7.3
Asian 3.4 2.7 4.0 3.1 2.6
Black 21.2 22.1 19.7 16.3 17.0
Native Hawaiian / Other Pacific Islander 0.1 0.0 <.1 <.1 <.1
Hispanic (of any race) 12.0 12.0 12.5 11.9 13.2
White 39.2 37.5 37.9 41.4 38.0
Two or more races 14.8 13.7 14.2 16.1 18.0
Missing data 2.2 2.7 2.9 3.8 4.0
Number 7,941 8,709 7,785 6,780 6,647
Maltreatment Types of Child Victims (%) 9
  2016 2017 2018 2019 2020
Emotional abuse 0.9 1.6 1.6 2.0 2.6
Medical neglect 0.9 0.2 -- -- --
Neglect 66.1 68.9 72.0 71.7 72.5
Physical abuse 33.0 31.6 20.6 15.0 14.1
Sexual abuse 16.5 17.9 20.9 23.7 24.9
Sex trafficking 0.0 0.0 0.2 0.4 0.2
Missing data 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0
Other 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0
Number 7,941 8,709 7,785 6,780 6,647
Time to Investigation (in hours) 10
  2016 2017 2018 2019 2020
Mean 108.1 104.2 78.3 71.4 83.8
Median >48 but <72 >48 but <72 >24 but <48 >24 but <48 >24 but <48

7 The unique count of child victims counts a child only once regardless of the number of times he or she was found to be a victim during the reporting year.  Back
8 The rates for Child Protective Services responses and victims are per 1,000 children under age 18; for fatalities, the rate is per 100,000 children under age 18.  Back
9 These percentages are calculated against the number of unique victims. A child may have been the victim of more than one type of maltreatment, or the same type of maltreatment more than once. As a result, the total percentages both within and across maltreatment categories may exceed 100.  Back
10 Response time is defined as the time between the report of suspected maltreatment and the first face-to-face contact with the alleged victim or with another person who can provide information on the allegation.  Back

C. Characteristics of Children in Foster Care (Adoption and Foster Care Analysis and Reporting System [AFCARS] Foster Care File)

Overview Foster Care Information
  In Foster Care on 10/1 FY Entered Foster Care in FY Exited Foster Care in FY In Foster Care on 9/30 FY
  2016 2017 2018 2019 2020 2016 2017 2018 2019 2020 2016 2017 2018 2019 2020 2016 2017 2018 2019 2020
Total number 7,304 8,468 9,299 8,969 8,185 7,277 7,408 6,743 6,045 5,007 5,788 6,225 6,771 6,614 5,429 8,793 9,651 9,271 8,400 7,763
Median length of stay (months) 9.5 10.4 10.9 12.1 12.3 N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A 9.2 10.4 11.6 12.7 13.3 10.1 10.7 11.8 12.1 13.3
Age of Children in Foster Care (%)
  In Foster Care on 10/1 FY Entered Foster Care in FY Exited Foster Care in FY In Foster Care on 9/30 FY
  2016 2017 2018 2019 2020 2016 2017 2018 2019 2020 2016 2017 2018 2019 2020 2016 2017 2018 2019 2020
Under 1 year 7.8 7.3 7.2 6.7 6.9 13.7 15.4 15.9 15.0 15.9 4.6 5.1 4.7 3.8 4.5 7.3 7.3 6.7 6.9 6.3
1 year 7.8 8.3 7.6 8.5 7.8 6.7 6.2 6.9 6.2 6.1 7.1 7.2 7.8 7.3 7.0 8.2 7.6 8.4 7.9 7.2
2 years 6.3 6.8 7.4 6.7 7.6 5.6 6.2 5.8 6.5 5.6 6.8 7.5 7.0 7.4 7.6 6.9 7.2 6.8 7.6 7.3
3 years 5.5 6.2 6.6 6.5 6.1 5.7 5.9 5.4 5.5 5.1 5.1 5.4 6.3 6.6 6.3 6.2 6.6 6.4 6.1 6.6
4 years 5.5 5.7 6.0 6.1 5.5 5.3 5.1 5.3 4.9 4.9 4.9 5.4 5.8 5.8 5.0 5.6 6.0 6.1 5.5 5.6
5 years 5.6 5.3 5.7 5.6 5.9 4.0 4.5 4.9 4.7 4.9 4.6 4.4 5.2 5.3 5.4 5.3 5.6 5.5 6.0 5.4
6 years 5.2 4.9 5.1 5.6 4.7 4.5 4.4 4.4 4.3 4.4 4.7 4.9 5.1 5.7 5.1 5.0 5.1 5.5 4.7 5.4
7 years 5.4 5.2 5.0 4.9 5.0 4.6 4.6 4.2 4.3 4.4 4.3 4.2 4.7 4.6 4.8 5.2 4.9 4.9 5.0 4.6
8 years 4.8 5.3 5.3 4.4 4.4 4.5 4.2 3.9 3.8 3.7 4.6 4.7 4.8 4.8 3.9 5.2 5.2 4.4 4.4 4.6
9 years 4.2 4.7 4.9 4.7 4.3 4.0 4.2 4.1 4.3 3.7 3.9 4.3 4.7 4.4 4.0 4.6 4.8 4.6 4.3 4.4
10 years 3.8 4.3 4.7 4.4 4.5 3.6 4.0 3.8 3.9 4.2 3.8 4.3 4.4 4.2 4.0 4.1 4.7 4.3 4.5 4.2
11 years 4.0 3.9 4.0 4.7 4.4 3.8 3.6 3.8 4.4 4.1 3.7 3.6 3.9 4.1 4.1 3.9 3.9 4.6 4.4 4.8
12 years 3.9 4.2 4.1 3.8 4.7 4.3 4.4 4.0 4.7 5.0 3.5 3.8 4.2 4.1 4.4 4.2 4.2 3.8 4.7 4.5
13 years 4.4 4.7 4.5 4.4 4.4 5.2 4.7 4.7 4.9 6.0 4.1 4.3 4.2 4.7 4.7 4.7 4.5 4.4 4.4 5.4
14 years 5.3 4.7 4.8 4.7 4.6 5.6 5.3 5.2 5.7 5.3 5.4 4.5 4.6 4.8 4.5 4.9 4.9 4.8 4.6 4.9
15 years 6.1 5.2 5.2 5.5 5.4 6.3 6.1 6.7 6.4 6.5 6.7 5.7 5.0 5.5 5.8 5.4 5.4 5.7 5.5 5.2
16 years 6.7 6.1 5.7 5.8 5.7 7.4 6.6 6.4 6.1 6.1 7.5 6.5 6.0 5.6 5.5 6.2 5.9 5.9 5.8 5.9
17 years 6.7 6.1 5.2 5.9 6.2 4.9 4.5 4.7 4.3 4.4 6.9 6.3 5.1 4.6 5.5 6.1 5.3 5.9 6.3 5.8
18 years 0.5 0.5 0.4 0.5 0.9 <.1 <.1 <.1 <.1 <.1 7.3 7.5 6.1 6.5 7.3 0.5 0.4 0.6 0.8 0.7
19 years 0.3 0.3 0.3 0.3 0.5 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.1 <.1 0.1 <.1 <.1 0.3 0.3 0.3 0.5 0.8
20+ years 0.4 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.3 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 <.1 <.1 <.1 0.1 <.1 0.2 0.2 0.3 0.3 0.4
Missing data 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.4 0.2 0.3 0.3 0.3 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0
Race/Ethnicity of Children in Foster Care (%)
  In Foster Care on 10/1 FY Entered Foster Care in FY Exited Foster Care in FY In Foster Care on 9/30 FY
  2016 2017 2018 2019 2020 2016 2017 2018 2019 2020 2016 2017 2018 2019 2020 2016 2017 2018 2019 2020
Alaska Native / American Indian 22.4 23.2 23.0 22.5 21.3 14.8 16.0 14.9 13.0 13.0 12.1 14.8 15.3 15.6 15.1 22.9 23.2 22.7 21.0 20.2
Asian 1.7 2.0 2.0 1.8 1.4 2.5 1.8 2.0 1.6 1.0 2.2 1.8 2.3 2.0 1.4 2.0 1.9 1.8 1.4 1.2
Black 15.2 14.0 15.1 15.1 14.9 16.0 16.7 16.2 14.9 13.1 17.7 15.4 15.9 14.8 13.9 14.2 15.1 15.3 15.1 14.5
Native Hawaiian / Other Pacific Islander <.1 0.1 <.1 <.1 <.1 <.1 0.1 <.1 <.1 <.1 <.1 0.2 <.1 0.1 <.1 0.1 <.1 <.1 <.1 <.1
Hispanic (of any race) 8.6 9.0 9.5 10.2 10.3 9.8 10.3 10.7 9.8 10.6 9.8 10.0 10.0 9.8 11.0 8.7 9.4 10.0 10.2 10.0
White 37.3 37.0 35.5 34.4 33.2 42.2 40.4 40.0 41.7 41.2 43.6 43.3 40.9 41.7 39.7 37.2 35.5 34.8 33.9 33.8
Two or more races 14.0 14.0 13.9 14.8 17.7 12.9 12.1 13.6 16.7 18.9 12.9 12.7 13.8 14.2 17.0 13.8 13.4 13.8 16.7 18.9
Unknown 0.7 0.7 1.0 1.2 1.1 1.7 2.6 2.6 2.3 2.1 1.6 1.7 1.7 1.7 1.8 1.0 1.5 1.6 1.5 1.2
Missing data 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 <.1 <.1 <.1 <.1 0.1 <.1 0.0 <.1 0.0 <.1 <.1 <.1 <.1 <.1 <.1

D. Characteristics of Children "Waiting for Adoption" 11 (AFCARS Foster Care File)

Children Waiting for Adoption
  2016 2017 2018 2019 2020
Total waiting children 1,541 1,990 2,026 1,951 1,869
Number of waiting children whose parents' rights have been terminated 1,457 1,848 1,852 1,812 1,694

11 There is no federal definition for a child waiting to be adopted. The definition used in the tables on this page includes children and youth through age 17 who have a goal of adoption and/or whose parents' parental rights have been terminated. It excludes children 16 years old and older whose parents' parental rights have been terminated and who have a goal of emancipation. A state's own definition may differ from that used here.  Back

Age of Children Waiting for Adoption (%) 12
  2016 2017 2018 2019 2020
Under 1 year 4.3 4.5 3.8 4.1 2.7
1 year 9.6 8.4 8.6 8.6 8.4
2 years 7.7 8.3 8.5 8.5 8.6
3 years 5.5 7.1 7.6 6.9 7.7
4 years 6.1 6.3 6.4 5.8 5.5
5 years 5.6 6.7 5.8 6.4 6.0
6 years 6.4 5.2 6.6 4.8 5.9
7 years 6.6 5.2 5.0 5.2 4.5
8 years 5.4 6.3 4.5 4.2 4.5
9 years 5.8 5.3 5.0 4.5 4.6
10 years 4.3 4.6 4.1 4.7 4.4
11 years 4.0 4.3 4.8 4.0 5.4
12 years 4.1 4.4 4.0 5.6 4.5
13 years 4.0 3.3 4.4 4.8 6.0
14 years 4.5 4.7 3.5 4.9 4.9
15 years 5.5 5.3 5.2 4.0 5.6
16 years 5.6 5.2 6.1 5.7 4.8
17 years 4.9 4.9 6.0 7.3 6.1

12 Children older than 17 years fall outside of the definition used to identify waiting children and are therefore excluded from this table.  Back

Race/Ethnicity of Children Waiting for Adoption (%)
  2016 2017 2018 2019 2020
Alaska Native / American Indian 11.0 10.2 9.8 8.5 8.8
Asian 1.8 1.9 3.0 2.1 1.6
Black 21.6 20.1 21.4 21.8 22.1
Native Hawaiian / Other Pacific Islander 0.2 <.1 <.1 <.1 0.0
Hispanic (of any race) 9.7 12.2 11.4 13.1 12.0
White 38.6 38.3 37.0 34.7 33.7
Two or more races 16.4 16.7 16.5 18.5 21.5
Unknown 0.7 0.7 0.8 1.3 0.3
Missing data 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0

E. Characteristics of Children Adopted (AFCARS Adoption File)

Children Adopted
  2016 2017 2018 2019 2020
Total children adopted 899 946 1,284 1,347 1,043
Age of Children Adopted (%)
  2016 2017 2018 2019 2020
Under 1 year 3.2 2.4 2.2 2.4 3.0
1 year 14.3 14.9 12.7 11.7 11.7
2 years 13.5 15.0 11.4 14.1 13.5
3 years 8.5 7.4 9.3 8.6 10.7
4 years 7.0 7.9 8.6 9.4 7.5
5 years 6.6 5.8 6.1 6.9 6.2
6 years 7.0 8.4 7.2 8.3 7.2
7 years 5.9 5.6 5.6 5.8 5.4
8 years 6.9 6.3 6.9 5.8 5.5
9 years 4.6 5.6 6.1 4.7 3.1
10 years 5.5 4.2 5.1 4.0 3.8
11 years 4.1 3.6 3.4 3.6 4.5
12 years 2.7 3.0 3.5 3.6 3.1
13 years 2.9 2.5 3.7 3.3 3.8
14 years 2.0 2.0 2.6 2.2 3.2
15 years 2.1 1.6 2.1 2.0 3.0
16 years 2.1 1.7 1.5 1.6 2.5
17 years 1.1 1.7 1.2 1.5 2.1
18 years 0.1 0.3 0.5 0.4 0.3
19 years 0.0 0.0 <.1 0.0 0.0
20+ years 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0
Race/Ethnicity of Children Adopted (%)
  2016 2017 2018 2019 2020
Alaska Native / American Indian 6.5 8.6 7.6 7.1 6.2
Asian 1.9 1.3 1.8 3.0 2.3
Black 12.2 14.5 13.9 16.5 13.4
Native Hawaiian / Other Pacific Islander 0.0 0.3 0.0 <.1 <.1
Hispanic (of any race) 9.5 8.4 11.7 11.5 13.8
White 52.6 50.8 48.7 45.9 44.8
Two or more races 16.9 15.3 15.3 14.8 17.6
Unknown 0.4 0.8 1.0 1.1 1.7
Missing data 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0

Minnesota [Outcomes Data]

Reduce Recurrence of Child Abuse and/or Neglect (NCANDS)

Recurrence of Maltreatment Within 12 Months (%)
  2015-2016 2016-2017 2017-2018 2018-2019 2019-2020
Children without a recurrence 91.7 90.1 90.1 92.8 93.6
Children with one or more recurrences 8.3 9.9 9.9 7.2 6.4
Number 5,573 8,109 8,625 7,753 7,003

Reduce the Incidence of Child Abuse and/or Neglect in Foster Care (NCANDS and AFCARS Foster Care File)

2.1 Maltreatment in Foster Care (%)
  2016 2017 2018 2019 2020
Children maltreated while in foster care 0.68 0.81 0.70 0.37 0.53
Children not maltreated while in foster care 99.32 99.19 99.30 99.63 99.47
Number 14,581 15,876 16,042 15,014 13,192

Increase Permanency for Children in Foster Care (AFCARS Foster Care File)

3.1 Exits of Children From Foster Care (%)
  2016 2017 2018 2019 2020
Adoption 15.7 15.3 19.0 20.7 19.4
Guardianship 6.1 8.4 10.9 12.5 11.6
Reunification 68.5 67.1 61.6 58.3 59.8
Other 9.7 9.2 8.5 8.6 9.2
Missing data 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0
Number 5,788 6,225 6,771 6,614 5,429
Exits of Children With a Diagnosed Disability (%)
  2016 2017 2018 2019 2020
Adoption 24.8 23.5 30.6 29.5 25.9
Guardianship 4.1 6.2 6.3 6.8 6.3
Reunification 53.5 52.1 47.1 46.1 50.0
Other 17.6 18.2 16.0 17.6 17.9
Missing data 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0
Number 1,950 1,767 1,769 1,905 1,823
Exits of Children Older than Age 12 at Entry Into Foster Care (%)
  2016 2017 2018 2019 2020
Adoption 1.8 1.9 3.0 3.3 3.8
Guardianship 3.0 5.1 5.8 6.2 6.6
Reunification 71.8 68.0 65.3 63.1 61.7
Other 23.4 25.0 25.9 27.4 27.8
Missing data 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0
Number 1,956 1,853 1,761 1,734 1,484
Exits to Emancipation (%)
  2016 2017 2018 2019 2020
Children age 12 or younger at entry 13.5 18.6 14.3 13.4 14.8
Children older than 12 at entry 86.5 81.4 85.7 86.6 85.2
Missing data 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0
Number 416 451 427 440 406
Exits by Race/Ethnicity (%)
  Alaska Native / American Indian Asian Black (non-Hispanic)
  2016 2017 2018 2019 2020 2016 2017 2018 2019 2020 2016 2017 2018 2019 2020
Adoption 9.3 8.9 9.5 9.7 9.0 13.5 10.4 14.6 30.4 31.2 10.8 14.4 16.7 22.7 18.6
Guardianship 10.5 16.0 23.3 23.1 21.7 0.0 1.7 3.8 3.7 10.4 2.4 4.2 5.3 6.6 7.7
Reunification 68.9 65.2 57.3 58.9 60.8 79.4 80.0 75.3 57.8 51.9 75.2 69.5 67.3 59.9 60.1
Other 11.3 9.9 10.0 8.3 8.4 7.1 7.8 6.3 8.1 6.5 11.5 12.0 10.7 10.8 13.6
Missing data 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0
Number 698 919 1,035 1,035 819 126 115 158 135 77 1,026 961 1,077 979 752
Exits by Race/Ethnicity (%)
  Native Hawaiian/Other Pac. Is. Hispanic (of any race) White (non-Hispanic)
  2016 2017 2018 2019 2020 2016 2017 2018 2019 2020 2016 2017 2018 2019 2020
Adoption 0.0 25.0 0.0 14.3 100.0 14.9 13.0 22.2 23.8 24.1 18.7 17.8 22.7 22.8 21.5
Guardianship 0.0 0.0 20.0 0.0 0.0 4.0 6.1 6.9 9.7 13.7 6.9 8.0 9.8 11.8 8.6
Reunification 100.0 58.3 0.0 42.9 0.0 71.8 72.1 62.9 59.4 51.9 64.9 65.6 60.5 57.1 61.0
Other 0.0 16.7 80.0 42.9 0.0 9.3 8.8 8.0 7.1 10.2 9.5 8.6 7.1 8.3 8.9
Missing data 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0
Number 4 12 5 7 1 570 624 677 651 597 2,524 2,697 2,768 2,759 2,158
Exits by Race/Ethnicity (%)
  Unable to Determine Two or More Races Missing Data
  2016 2017 2018 2019 2020 2016 2017 2018 2019 2020 2016 2017 2018 2019 2020
Adoption 4.4 7.4 11.1 13.4 18.0 20.7 18.4 20.9 21.7 20.2 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0
Guardianship 1.1 1.9 2.6 9.8 3.0 7.9 10.4 12.0 12.4 12.2 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0
Reunification 93.4 87.0 80.3 75.9 75.0 63.4 63.1 57.8 56.6 60.1 100.0 0.0 100.0 0.0 100.0
Other 1.1 3.7 6.0 0.9 4.0 8.0 8.1 9.2 9.3 7.5 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0
Missing data 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0
Number 91 108 117 112 100 748 789 932 936 924 1 0 2 0 1

Reduce Time to Reunification Without Increasing Reentry (AFCARS Foster Care File)

Time to Reunification (%)
  2016 2017 2018 2019 2020
Less than 12 mos. 79.4 74.4 74.3 71.1 68.6
At least 12 mos., but less than 24 mos. 16.7 20.8 21.1 22.3 23.5
At least 24 mos., but less than 36 mos. 2.3 3.3 3.2 4.4 4.3
At least 36 mos., but less than 48 mos. 0.8 1.1 0.6 0.8 1.2
48 or more mos. 0.8 0.5 0.7 1.4 2.4
Missing data <.1 0.0 <.1 0.0 0.0
Number 3,963 4,177 4,172 3,855 3,248
Children Reentering Foster Care (%)
  2016 2017 2018 2019 2020
Children entering care for the first time 72.0 72.5 71.9 70.4 70.5
Children reentering care within 12 mos. of a prior episode 13.3 13.3 13.7 14.6 13.0
Children reentering care more than 12 mos. after a prior episode 14.3 13.7 13.9 14.6 16.3
Missing data 0.3 0.4 0.4 0.4 0.2
Number 7,277 7,408 6,743 6,045 5,007

Reduce Time in Foster Care to Adoption (AFCARS Foster Care File)

Time to Adoption (%)
  2016 2017 2018 2019 2020
Less than 12 mos. 6.2 4.7 5.6 6.1 5.5
At least 12 mos., but less than 24 mos. 49.5 48.3 40.1 41.2 37.8
At least 24 mos., but less than 36 mos. 30.0 32.9 37.8 34.6 33.4
At least 36 mos., but less than 48 mos. 9.3 8.0 10.9 11.1 12.4
48 or more mos. 5.1 6.0 5.6 7.0 10.9
Missing data 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0
Number 910 950 1,286 1,366 1,052

Increase Placement Stability (AFCARS Foster Care File)

Number of Placements by Time in Care (%)
  In Care Less Than 12 Months In Care at Least 12 months but Less Than 24 months In Care for 24 Months or Longer Time in Care Missing or Out of Range
  2016 2017 2018 2019 2020 2016 2017 2018 2019 2020 2016 2017 2018 2019 2020 2016 2017 2018 2019 2020
Children with 2 or fewer placements 87.2 87.7 88.3 88.2 87.8 64.5 65.8 67.6 70.4 69.5 36.8 37.3 38.7 38.2 39.9 90.7 100.0 90.0 96.9 100.0
Children with 3 or more placements 12.4 12.1 11.3 11.5 11.8 35.4 34.2 32.4 29.6 30.5 63.1 62.7 61.3 61.8 60.1 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0
Missing Placement setting counts 0.4 0.3 0.4 0.3 0.4 <.1 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 <.1 <.1 0.0 0.0 0.0 9.3 0.0 10.0 3.1 0.0
Total number 8,498 8,675 8,168 7,325 6,013 3,554 4,218 4,412 4,104 3,710 2,486 2,970 3,452 3,553 3,453 43 13 10 32 16

Reduce Placement of Young Children in Group Homes or Institutions (AFCARS Foster Care File)

Most Recent Placement Settings of Children Who Entered Care During the Fiscal Year and Were Age 12 or Younger at the Time of This Placement (%)
  2016 2017 2018 2019 2020
Group homes 1.5 1.7 1.4 1.9 1.8
Institution 3.4 3.4 3.2 3.4 3.8
Other settings 95.1 94.9 95.4 94.6 94.3
Missing data 0.0 0.0 0.0 <.1 0.1
Number 5,089 5,356 4,846 4,354 3,573