Michigan

Michigan [Context Data]

A. Context Statistics 1 2

General Child Population (Census Bureau) 3
  2016 2017 2018 2019 2020
Total children under 18 years 2,194,924 2,181,394 2,163,590 2,144,307 2,126,813
Race/ethnicity (%) 4
Alaska Native / American Indian 0.6 0.6 0.6 0.6 0.6
Asian 3.3 3.4 3.4 3.5 3.5
Black 16.0 16.0 16.0 16.0 16.0
Native Hawaiian / Other Pacific Islander <.1 <.1 <.1 <.1 <.1
Hispanic (of any race) 8.3 8.5 8.6 8.7 8.7
White 67.1 66.9 66.6 66.3 66.1
Two or more races 4.7 4.7 4.8 4.9 5.1
Child population in poverty (%) 20.7 19.7 19.4 17.6 17.0
Child Welfare Summary 5
  2016 2017 2018 2019 2020
Child maltreatment victims 37,261 38,062 37,703 33,043 26,932
Foster care entry rate 3.0 3.1 2.9 2.7 2.1
Children in foster care on 9/30 11,599 11,918 12,121 11,676 10,661
Children adopted 2,078 1,970 1,991 2,161 1,851
Caseworker Visits 6
  2016 2017 2018 2019 2020
Children receiving monthly visits (%) 97 96 97 97 97
Numerator 2,854 135,062 137,047 134,819 125,415
Denominator 2,940 140,103 140,754 138,461 128,930
Children receiving visits in the home (%) 98 98 98 98 81
Numerator 2,793 132,421 134,743 132,656 101,094
Denominator 2,854 135,062 137,047 134,819 125,415

1 The source data for each table is indicated in parentheses for each section. A calendar year is the basis for data from the Census Bureau. Most of the other data on these pages are from the National Child Abuse and Neglect Data System (NCANDS) or the Adoption and Foster Care Analysis and Reporting System (AFCARS) and are based on the federal fiscal year, October 1 through September 30.  Back
2 Data that did not meet the quality standards for inclusion in the report are represented as DQ*. Incomplete data excluded from inclusion in the report are represented as --. For additional information on the data quality thresholds for the Child Welfare Outcomes Report, please reference the full report or the Child Welfare Outcomes data site.  Back
3 The total child population and data on race/ethnicity represent estimates from the Census Bureau https://www.census.gov/data/tables.html . Child poverty data are from the Census Bureau's American Community Survey (ACS). Due to the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic, the 2020 poverty estimates are not available on data.census.gov. The 2020 poverty estimates are considered experimental and can be found on the ACS Experimental Data webpage: https://www.census.gov/programs-surveys/acs/data/experimental-data.html.  Back
4 For race/ethnicity tables, all races exclude children of Hispanic origin. The Child Welfare Outcomes Report data site http://cwoutcomes.acf.hhs.gov/cwodatasite provides alternative race/ethnicity breakdowns in which race and ethnicity are treated as two separate categories.  Back
5 A child victim is defined as a child for whom the state determined at least one maltreatment was substantiated or indicated. This includes a child who died of child abuse and neglect. This is a change from prior years when children with dispositions of alternative response victim were included as victims. The rate for foster care entry is per 1,000 children in the state population. Data on child maltreatment victims are from NCANDS. Data on foster care entry rate, children in foster care on 9/30, and children adopted are from AFCARS.  Back
6 The reporting population subject to the caseworker visits requirements includes all children under age 18 for at least the first day of the FY (October 1) who have been in foster care for at least one full calendar month during the FY. All states have the option of using an approved sampling procedure for the caseworker visits reporting requirement.  Back

B. Child Maltreatment Data (National Child Abuse and Neglect Data System [NCANDS]) 7

Overview Maltreatment Information 8
  2016 2017 2018 2019 2020
  Number Rate Number Rate Number Rate Number Rate Number Rate
Children subject of an investigated report alleging child maltreatment 149,302 68.0 per 1,000 150,927 69.2 per 1,000 158,673 73.3 per 1,000 161,058 75.1 per 1,000 129,271 60.8 per 1,000
Total child maltreatment victims 37,261 17.0 per 1,000 38,062 17.4 per 1,000 37,703 17.4 per 1,000 33,043 15.4 per 1,000 26,932 12.7 per 1,000
Child Fatalities 86 3.9 per 100,000 51 2.3 per 100,000 49 2.3 per 100,000 63 2.9 per 100,000 43 2.0 per 100,000
Age of Child Victims (%)
  2016 2017 2018 2019 2020
Under 1 year 20.7 21.5 20.0 12.6 12.7
1 year 6.7 6.7 6.3 7.3 7.4
2 years 6.7 6.2 6.7 6.9 6.9
3 years 6.0 6.2 6.1 6.4 6.8
4 years 5.6 5.5 5.7 6.2 6.2
5 years 5.5 5.7 5.6 5.9 5.9
6 years 5.4 5.3 5.2 5.8 5.7
7 years 5.1 5.1 5.1 5.5 5.6
8 years 5.0 5.0 5.0 5.4 5.2
9 years 4.7 4.5 4.7 5.1 4.7
10 years 4.2 4.3 4.3 4.9 4.7
11 years 3.8 3.9 4.2 4.6 4.7
12 years 3.9 3.9 4.1 4.7 4.4
13 years 3.9 3.9 4.0 4.5 4.5
14 years 3.9 3.7 3.9 4.3 4.4
15 years 3.7 3.6 3.8 4.0 4.1
16 years 3.1 3.1 3.2 3.4 3.6
17 years 2.0 2.0 2.0 2.1 2.2
18+ years 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0
Missing data 0.2 0.3 0.2 0.2 <.1
Number 37,261 38,062 37,703 33,043 26,932
Race/Ethnicity of Child Victims (%)
  2016 2017 2018 2019 2020
Alaska Native / American Indian 0.4 0.4 0.3 0.3 0.3
Asian 0.3 0.3 0.2 0.3 0.3
Black 25.6 27.4 26.4 26.3 27.7
Native Hawaiian / Other Pacific Islander <.1 0.0 <.1 <.1 <.1
Hispanic (of any race) 7.4 7.4 7.6 7.8 7.4
White 52.7 53.9 55.0 55.9 54.8
Two or more races 8.9 9.4 9.2 9.1 9.3
Missing data 4.8 1.3 1.2 0.2 0.2
Number 37,261 38,062 37,703 33,043 26,932
Maltreatment Types of Child Victims (%) 9
  2016 2017 2018 2019 2020
Emotional abuse 0.4 0.4 0.6 0.6 0.6
Medical neglect 2.1 1.9 2.0 2.4 2.2
Neglect 85.6 85.2 85.8 94.1 92.3
Physical abuse 23.8 25.2 24.1 15.7 15.2
Sexual abuse 3.1 3.7 3.8 4.0 4.5
Sex trafficking 0.0 0.0 0.1 <.1 0.1
Missing data 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0
Other <.1 0.0 0.0 <.1 0.0
Number 37,261 38,062 37,703 33,043 26,932
Time to Investigation (in hours) 10
  2016 2017 2018 2019 2020
Mean 42.2 32.2 33.7 40.4 39.1
Median <24 <24 <24 <24 <24

7 The unique count of child victims counts a child only once regardless of the number of times he or she was found to be a victim during the reporting year.  Back
8 The rates for Child Protective Services responses and victims are per 1,000 children under age 18; for fatalities, the rate is per 100,000 children under age 18.  Back
9 These percentages are calculated against the number of unique victims. A child may have been the victim of more than one type of maltreatment, or the same type of maltreatment more than once. As a result, the total percentages both within and across maltreatment categories may exceed 100.  Back
10 Response time is defined as the time between the report of suspected maltreatment and the first face-to-face contact with the alleged victim or with another person who can provide information on the allegation.  Back

C. Characteristics of Children in Foster Care (Adoption and Foster Care Analysis and Reporting System [AFCARS] Foster Care File)

Overview Foster Care Information
  In Foster Care on 10/1 FY Entered Foster Care in FY Exited Foster Care in FY In Foster Care on 9/30 FY
  2016 2017 2018 2019 2020 2016 2017 2018 2019 2020 2016 2017 2018 2019 2020 2016 2017 2018 2019 2020
Total number 11,682 11,376 11,897 12,075 11,635 6,512 6,854 6,208 5,770 4,386 6,595 6,312 5,984 6,169 5,360 11,599 11,918 12,121 11,676 10,661
Median length of stay (months) 13.4 12.8 12.5 13.7 14.5 N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A 19.5 18.2 19.2 20.3 21.5 12.5 12.2 13.5 14.4 16.6
Age of Children in Foster Care (%)
  In Foster Care on 10/1 FY Entered Foster Care in FY Exited Foster Care in FY In Foster Care on 9/30 FY
  2016 2017 2018 2019 2020 2016 2017 2018 2019 2020 2016 2017 2018 2019 2020 2016 2017 2018 2019 2020
Under 1 year 8.0 8.2 7.7 7.2 6.9 20.8 19.9 21.0 20.9 22.3 3.5 3.7 3.1 3.2 2.3 8.2 7.8 7.2 7.0 6.6
1 year 10.0 9.5 9.4 9.6 9.1 7.7 7.2 7.6 7.5 7.7 9.3 8.9 8.3 8.1 8.0 9.4 9.5 9.7 9.1 8.9
2 years 8.1 8.5 8.2 8.2 8.5 6.9 7.3 6.8 6.8 5.8 9.3 9.0 9.1 9.4 8.9 8.5 8.3 8.3 8.5 8.3
3 years 7.2 7.1 7.2 7.3 6.9 5.6 5.8 6.2 6.2 5.9 7.5 8.2 7.9 8.0 7.9 7.1 7.3 7.3 7.0 7.3
4 years 6.2 6.4 6.0 6.3 6.6 5.6 5.4 5.2 5.3 5.3 6.2 6.7 6.3 6.9 7.2 6.4 6.0 6.3 6.6 6.2
5 years 5.9 5.6 5.9 5.8 5.3 4.8 5.3 4.8 5.2 4.4 5.8 6.2 5.4 6.1 5.9 5.6 5.9 5.8 5.3 5.7
6 years 5.5 5.3 5.1 5.5 5.5 4.9 4.9 4.8 4.6 4.1 6.1 5.4 5.4 5.7 5.4 5.4 5.1 5.5 5.5 5.0
7 years 5.0 4.9 4.9 4.9 5.0 4.5 4.5 4.5 4.3 4.0 5.4 4.6 4.6 4.7 5.2 4.9 4.9 4.9 5.1 4.9
8 years 4.8 4.4 4.7 4.8 4.6 3.9 4.4 4.2 4.2 3.5 4.7 4.8 4.7 4.8 5.0 4.5 4.8 4.8 4.5 4.5
9 years 4.2 4.4 4.5 4.3 4.5 3.7 3.9 3.8 3.5 3.1 4.4 4.2 4.4 4.5 4.3 4.4 4.5 4.3 4.5 4.0
10 years 3.6 3.9 3.9 4.5 4.0 3.3 3.7 3.7 3.9 3.4 3.7 3.9 4.0 3.9 4.2 3.8 3.8 4.5 4.0 4.0
11 years 3.5 3.5 3.9 3.6 4.4 3.3 3.4 3.3 3.4 3.5 3.1 3.4 3.7 3.6 4.2 3.5 3.9 3.7 4.4 3.8
12 years 3.2 3.5 3.7 3.6 3.8 3.2 3.6 3.3 3.9 3.2 3.2 3.3 3.4 3.1 3.2 3.5 3.7 3.6 3.8 4.1
13 years 3.4 3.4 3.6 3.8 4.0 3.5 3.3 3.5 3.8 3.2 2.5 3.1 3.2 3.1 3.6 3.4 3.6 3.8 4.1 3.8
14 years 4.0 4.2 3.8 3.9 3.9 4.4 3.8 4.1 3.4 3.8 3.1 2.7 2.9 3.1 3.3 4.2 3.8 3.9 3.9 4.1
15 years 4.4 4.7 4.5 4.6 4.2 4.3 4.0 4.2 3.8 3.8 3.0 3.0 2.9 2.9 2.5 4.7 4.6 4.6 4.2 4.3
16 years 5.0 4.9 5.4 4.9 5.1 4.3 4.2 3.8 4.0 4.3 3.0 2.8 3.4 3.2 3.2 5.0 5.4 4.8 5.1 4.8
17 years 5.7 5.6 5.3 5.1 4.7 3.4 3.5 3.2 3.2 3.9 2.8 2.8 3.2 2.9 2.8 5.6 5.5 5.2 5.1 5.7
18 years 0.7 0.7 0.7 0.7 0.9 0.6 0.6 0.8 0.8 1.6 10.4 10.8 11.3 10.2 9.6 0.5 0.4 0.4 0.5 1.1
19 years 0.6 0.8 0.9 0.9 0.9 0.8 0.7 0.6 0.8 1.7 0.9 0.6 0.8 0.7 0.6 0.6 0.6 0.6 0.7 1.5
20+ years 0.9 0.6 0.8 0.8 0.9 0.6 0.4 0.5 0.6 1.4 1.3 1.3 1.5 1.3 1.6 0.6 0.7 0.7 1.0 1.4
Missing data <.1 <.1 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.6 0.5 0.6 0.6 1.0 <.1 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0
Race/Ethnicity of Children in Foster Care (%)
  In Foster Care on 10/1 FY Entered Foster Care in FY Exited Foster Care in FY In Foster Care on 9/30 FY
  2016 2017 2018 2019 2020 2016 2017 2018 2019 2020 2016 2017 2018 2019 2020 2016 2017 2018 2019 2020
Alaska Native / American Indian 0.5 0.6 0.5 0.4 0.4 0.8 0.4 0.5 0.5 0.4 0.6 0.7 0.7 0.4 0.5 0.7 0.5 0.4 0.4 0.4
Asian 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.3 0.4 0.4 0.5 0.3 0.4 0.4 0.3 0.4 0.6 0.3 0.5 0.3 0.3 0.3 0.4 0.3
Black 28.5 28.7 29.9 29.3 28.9 26.7 29.1 25.4 27.2 26.9 26.2 26.5 26.8 28.2 26.6 28.8 30.0 29.1 28.8 29.2
Native Hawaiian / Other Pacific Islander 0.0 <.1 <.1 0.0 0.0 <.1 <.1 0.0 <.1 0.1 0.0 <.1 0.0 0.0 <.1 <.1 <.1 <.1 <.1 <.1
Hispanic (of any race) 7.6 7.8 7.9 8.0 7.6 8.1 8.9 8.4 8.2 8.8 8.5 8.6 8.7 9.2 7.8 7.4 8.0 7.8 7.5 8.0
White 49.4 49.7 48.3 48.8 49.4 51.7 48.5 52.3 51.0 50.0 51.0 50.8 50.9 49.1 51.3 49.8 48.4 49.1 49.7 48.6
Two or more races 13.5 12.9 13.0 13.2 13.3 11.9 12.5 13.0 12.6 13.3 13.0 12.8 12.4 12.8 13.2 12.9 12.7 13.3 13.2 13.4
Unknown <.1 <.1 <.1 <.1 <.1 0.2 <.1 <.1 0.1 <.1 0.1 0.1 <.1 <.1 <.1 0.1 <.1 <.1 <.1 <.1
Missing data 0.1 <.1 <.1 <.1 <.1 0.1 <.1 <.1 <.1 0.0 0.2 <.1 <.1 <.1 <.1 <.1 <.1 <.1 <.1 0.0

D. Characteristics of Children "Waiting for Adoption" 11 (AFCARS Foster Care File)

Children Waiting for Adoption
  2016 2017 2018 2019 2020
Total waiting children 3,416 3,646 3,898 3,821 3,660
Number of waiting children whose parents' rights have been terminated 3,083 3,220 3,389 3,374 2,880

11 There is no federal definition for a child waiting to be adopted. The definition used in the tables on this page includes children and youth through age 17 who have a goal of adoption and/or whose parents' parental rights have been terminated. It excludes children 16 years old and older whose parents' parental rights have been terminated and who have a goal of emancipation. A state's own definition may differ from that used here.  Back

Age of Children Waiting for Adoption (%) 12
  2016 2017 2018 2019 2020
Under 1 year 4.0 3.5 3.4 3.2 3.0
1 year 9.3 10.2 9.8 8.6 8.6
2 years 9.9 8.5 10.2 9.2 9.2
3 years 8.0 7.9 8.0 7.8 8.0
4 years 7.7 6.7 6.8 7.7 6.7
5 years 6.4 6.5 6.4 5.5 5.9
6 years 6.0 5.8 5.9 6.2 5.1
7 years 5.6 5.8 5.0 6.1 5.6
8 years 5.2 5.6 5.6 5.2 5.9
9 years 5.4 5.0 5.2 5.2 4.9
10 years 4.6 4.4 5.2 5.1 5.1
11 years 3.7 4.6 4.2 4.7 4.6
12 years 4.0 4.6 4.2 4.2 5.2
13 years 4.1 4.6 4.4 4.4 4.6
14 years 4.5 4.2 4.5 4.9 5.0
15 years 5.3 5.1 4.4 4.9 5.0
16 years 4.1 4.6 4.5 4.1 4.9
17 years 2.1 2.4 2.4 3.0 3.0

12 Children older than 17 years fall outside of the definition used to identify waiting children and are therefore excluded from this table.  Back

Race/Ethnicity of Children Waiting for Adoption (%)
  2016 2017 2018 2019 2020
Alaska Native / American Indian 0.4 0.4 0.4 0.3 0.3
Asian <.1 <.1 <.1 0.2 0.2
Black 28.1 28.5 29.6 28.7 27.3
Native Hawaiian / Other Pacific Islander 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0
Hispanic (of any race) 6.9 7.8 7.7 7.5 7.9
White 49.8 50.6 48.8 49.3 49.9
Two or more races 14.6 12.7 13.3 14.0 14.4
Unknown <.1 <.1 0.0 <.1 <.1
Missing data <.1 0.0 0.0 <.1 0.0

E. Characteristics of Children Adopted (AFCARS Adoption File)

Children Adopted
  2016 2017 2018 2019 2020
Total children adopted 2,078 1,970 1,991 2,161 1,851
Age of Children Adopted (%)
  2016 2017 2018 2019 2020
Under 1 year 2.8 2.2 1.7 1.9 1.1
1 year 13.2 12.2 12.8 9.8 9.7
2 years 14.5 15.3 13.4 15.7 14.0
3 years 11.2 12.4 11.2 11.8 10.8
4 years 8.2 9.2 8.7 9.4 10.4
5 years 8.4 7.3 7.9 8.0 7.5
6 years 6.9 7.1 7.6 6.9 6.7
7 years 6.7 5.3 5.1 5.5 6.3
8 years 5.7 4.9 6.1 5.3 6.4
9 years 4.9 5.1 4.9 4.9 5.3
10 years 3.4 4.2 4.1 4.4 4.8
11 years 3.3 3.3 4.1 3.9 4.2
12 years 3.1 2.8 3.0 3.1 3.1
13 years 2.0 2.6 2.8 2.7 2.8
14 years 2.0 1.7 2.3 1.9 2.7
15 years 1.5 1.6 1.5 1.7 1.4
16 years 1.1 1.5 1.6 1.8 1.3
17 years 1.0 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.2
18 years 0.1 0.4 0.3 <.1 0.2
19 years 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 <.1
20+ years 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0
Race/Ethnicity of Children Adopted (%)
  2016 2017 2018 2019 2020
Alaska Native / American Indian 0.3 0.1 0.3 0.5 0.3
Asian <.1 0.2 0.1 <.1 0.0
Black 20.2 20.6 20.5 23.6 20.1
Native Hawaiian / Other Pacific Islander 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0
Hispanic (of any race) 7.8 7.6 7.7 7.6 7.7
White 57.8 54.6 57.8 54.3 56.1
Two or more races 13.2 16.3 13.4 14.0 15.7
Unknown <.1 0.6 <.1 0.0 0.0
Missing data 0.5 0.1 <.1 0.0 0.1

Michigan [Outcomes Data]

Reduce Recurrence of Child Abuse and/or Neglect (NCANDS)

Recurrence of Maltreatment Within 12 Months (%)
  2015-2016 2016-2017 2017-2018 2018-2019 2019-2020
Children without a recurrence 89.5 89.0 88.7 89.2 88.7
Children with one or more recurrences 10.5 11.0 11.3 10.8 11.3
Number 34,408 36,511 38,121 37,285 32,672

Reduce the Incidence of Child Abuse and/or Neglect in Foster Care (NCANDS and AFCARS Foster Care File)

2.1 Maltreatment in Foster Care (%)
  2016 2017 2018 2019 2020
Children maltreated while in foster care 0.56 0.88 0.71 0.88 0.43
Children not maltreated while in foster care 99.44 99.12 99.29 99.12 99.57
Number 18,194 18,230 18,105 17,845 16,021

Increase Permanency for Children in Foster Care (AFCARS Foster Care File)

3.1 Exits of Children From Foster Care (%)
  2016 2017 2018 2019 2020
Adoption 31.5 30.7 33.4 35.2 34.8
Guardianship 6.9 5.7 6.1 6.0 6.0
Reunification 48.2 49.4 46.6 46.2 47.7
Other 10.9 11.8 12.8 11.4 11.0
Missing data 2.5 2.4 1.1 1.2 0.4
Number 6,595 6,312 5,984 6,169 5,360
Exits of Children With a Diagnosed Disability (%)
  2016 2017 2018 2019 2020
Adoption 82.0 86.4 85.5 67.7 53.2
Guardianship 1.4 0.5 1.0 3.7 6.7
Reunification 8.6 7.0 7.6 19.9 30.0
Other 6.8 5.1 5.1 8.0 9.6
Missing data 1.2 1.0 0.8 0.7 0.6
Number 488 602 722 870 898
Exits of Children Older than Age 12 at Entry Into Foster Care (%)
  2016 2017 2018 2019 2020
Adoption 3.2 2.9 4.5 5.5 4.7
Guardianship 7.7 6.1 6.0 8.5 7.8
Reunification 45.1 43.0 41.2 40.7 40.8
Other 41.8 45.5 47.2 44.4 46.3
Missing data 2.2 2.5 1.1 0.9 0.5
Number 1,392 1,287 1,368 1,278 1,094
Exits to Emancipation (%)
  2016 2017 2018 2019 2020
Children age 12 or younger at entry 16.9 17.0 13.3 16.0 11.2
Children older than 12 at entry 83.1 83.0 86.7 84.0 88.8
Missing data 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0
Number 668 690 706 638 556
Exits by Race/Ethnicity (%)
  Alaska Native / American Indian Asian Black (non-Hispanic)
  2016 2017 2018 2019 2020 2016 2017 2018 2019 2020 2016 2017 2018 2019 2020
Adoption 14.6 4.4 15.0 38.5 23.1 4.3 11.1 3.0 12.5 0.0 24.6 24.1 25.8 29.6 26.3
Guardianship 19.5 22.2 25.0 15.4 15.4 4.3 3.7 6.1 0.0 0.0 5.4 5.0 3.9 4.4 4.6
Reunification 48.8 48.9 40.0 30.8 61.5 30.4 33.3 24.2 25.0 28.0 51.1 49.7 49.8 50.5 52.1
Other 17.1 15.6 17.5 11.5 0.0 60.9 51.9 66.7 62.5 72.0 16.3 18.9 19.2 15.2 16.3
Missing data 0.0 8.9 2.5 3.8 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 2.6 2.2 1.2 0.4 0.6
Number 41 45 40 26 26 23 27 33 16 25 1,731 1,673 1,601 1,741 1,424
Exits by Race/Ethnicity (%)
  Native Hawaiian/Other Pac. Is. Hispanic (of any race) White (non-Hispanic)
  2016 2017 2018 2019 2020 2016 2017 2018 2019 2020 2016 2017 2018 2019 2020
Adoption 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 29.5 26.9 30.3 29.2 34.1 35.8 33.2 37.9 39.0 38.1
Guardianship 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 7.2 4.2 4.8 4.9 3.8 7.3 6.1 7.1 7.0 6.9
Reunification 0.0 50.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 42.8 47.3 41.7 44.3 43.2 47.4 51.4 45.9 44.8 47.1
Other 0.0 50.0 0.0 0.0 100.0 18.1 20.6 22.8 20.7 18.9 7.2 6.9 7.9 7.6 7.5
Missing data 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 2.5 0.9 0.4 0.9 0.0 2.3 2.4 1.2 1.7 0.4
Number 0 2 0 0 3 559 543 521 566 417 3,363 3,206 3,046 3,029 2,752
Exits by Race/Ethnicity (%)
  Unable to Determine Two or More Races Missing Data
  2016 2017 2018 2019 2020 2016 2017 2018 2019 2020 2016 2017 2018 2019 2020
Adoption 0.0 28.6 0.0 0.0 0.0 31.5 39.2 35.9 38.1 41.2 42.9 0.0 0.0 0.0 100.0
Guardianship 14.3 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 7.2 5.7 6.5 6.1 6.8 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0
Reunification 57.1 28.6 0.0 0.0 25.0 49.2 43.3 47.2 44.9 44.6 57.1 0.0 100.0 50.0 0.0
Other 28.6 42.9 100.0 100.0 75.0 8.8 8.4 9.3 9.7 7.1 0.0 100.0 0.0 0.0 0.0
Missing data 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 3.3 3.3 1.1 1.3 0.3 0.0 0.0 0.0 50.0 0.0
Number 7 7 1 2 4 857 808 740 787 708 14 1 2 2 1

Reduce Time to Reunification Without Increasing Reentry (AFCARS Foster Care File)

Time to Reunification (%)
  2016 2017 2018 2019 2020
Less than 12 mos. 43.7 44.9 46.2 40.3 35.0
At least 12 mos., but less than 24 mos. 38.3 41.6 39.4 43.7 43.7
At least 24 mos., but less than 36 mos. 13.0 9.1 10.6 11.1 15.1
At least 36 mos., but less than 48 mos. 2.8 2.4 1.9 2.9 4.1
48 or more mos. 2.2 2.0 1.9 2.0 2.1
Missing data 0.0 <.1 0.0 <.1 0.0
Number 3,179 3,121 2,789 2,853 2,557
Children Reentering Foster Care (%)
  2016 2017 2018 2019 2020
Children entering care for the first time 83.1 82.6 82.5 82.6 78.8
Children reentering care within 12 mos. of a prior episode 5.8 5.9 6.1 6.0 8.2
Children reentering care more than 12 mos. after a prior episode 11.1 11.5 11.4 11.4 13.0
Missing data <.1 0.0 <.1 <.1 <.1
Number 6,512 6,854 6,208 5,770 4,386

Reduce Time in Foster Care to Adoption (AFCARS Foster Care File)

Time to Adoption (%)
  2016 2017 2018 2019 2020
Less than 12 mos. 5.5 4.4 3.5 3.5 2.9
At least 12 mos., but less than 24 mos. 29.9 31.7 33.6 30.0 28.0
At least 24 mos., but less than 36 mos. 40.8 38.1 37.9 37.9 40.3
At least 36 mos., but less than 48 mos. 15.3 18.8 16.6 18.0 19.7
48 or more mos. 8.5 7.0 8.4 10.6 9.2
Missing data 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0
Number 2,078 1,939 1,998 2,172 1,864

Increase Placement Stability (AFCARS Foster Care File)

Number of Placements by Time in Care (%)
  In Care Less Than 12 Months In Care at Least 12 months but Less Than 24 months In Care for 24 Months or Longer Time in Care Missing or Out of Range
  2016 2017 2018 2019 2020 2016 2017 2018 2019 2020 2016 2017 2018 2019 2020 2016 2017 2018 2019 2020
Children with 2 or fewer placements 87.7 87.2 86.1 87.7 89.2 73.3 73.7 71.8 72.5 75.5 44.1 46.6 47.4 48.2 49.4 100.0 100.0 100.0 96.9 100.0
Children with 3 or more placements 12.2 12.6 13.8 12.2 10.6 26.7 26.3 28.1 27.5 24.5 55.9 53.4 52.6 51.8 50.6 0.0 0.0 0.0 3.1 0.0
Missing Placement setting counts 0.1 0.2 0.1 0.2 0.2 <.1 <.1 <.1 <.1 <.1 0.0 <.1 0.0 <.1 <.1 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0
Total number 7,472 7,758 7,078 6,495 5,020 5,468 5,575 5,888 5,669 5,186 5,225 4,891 5,134 5,649 5,796 29 6 5 32 19

Reduce Placement of Young Children in Group Homes or Institutions (AFCARS Foster Care File)

Most Recent Placement Settings of Children Who Entered Care During the Fiscal Year and Were Age 12 or Younger at the Time of This Placement (%)
  2016 2017 2018 2019 2020
Group homes 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.1 <.1
Institution 1.8 2.2 2.1 1.8 0.7
Other settings 98.0 97.6 97.5 98.1 99.2
Missing data <.1 0.0 <.1 0.0 <.1
Number 5,057 5,400 4,886 4,558 3,325