Maryland

Maryland [Context Data]

A. Context Statistics 1 2

General Child Population (Census Bureau) 3
  2015 2016 2017 2018 2019
Total children under 18 years 1,346,113 1,345,550 1,343,930 1,339,438 1,334,687
Race/ethnicity (%) 4
Alaska Native / American Indian 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.2
Asian 6.0 6.0 6.1 6.1 6.1
Black 31.2 31.1 30.9 30.7 30.6
Native Hawaiian / Other Pacific Islander <.1 <.1 <.1 <.1 <.1
Hispanic (of any race) 14.0 14.7 15.3 15.9 16.5
White 43.5 42.9 42.3 41.8 41.3
Two or more races 5.0 5.1 5.1 5.2 5.2
Child population in poverty (%) 13.2 12.7 12.0 11.6 12.0
Child Welfare Summary 5
  2015 2016 2017 2018 2019
Child maltreatment victims 6,790 6,993 7,578 7,743 7,661
Foster care entry rate 1.6 1.7 1.8 1.8 1.4
Children in foster care on 9/30 3,914 3,841 3,923 3,973 3,839
Children adopted 294 361 348 353 291
Caseworker Visits 6
  2015 2016 2017 2018 2019
Children receiving monthly visits (%) 97 98 97 96 97
Numerator 37,616 37,312 36,758 38,094 38,391
Denominator 38,746 38,099 37,908 39,560 39,376
Children receiving visits in the home (%) 75 77 74 72 76
Numerator 28,377 28,546 27,207 27,331 29,355
Denominator 37,616 37,312 36,758 38,094 38,391

1 The source data for each table is indicated in parentheses for each section. A calendar year is the basis for data from the Census Bureau. Most of the other data on these pages are from the National Child Abuse and Neglect Data System (NCANDS) or the Adoption and Foster Care Analysis and Reporting System (AFCARS) and are based on the federal fiscal year, October 1 through September 30.  Back
2 Data that did not meet the quality standards for inclusion in the report are represented as DQ*. Incomplete data excluded from inclusion in the report are represented as --. For additional information on the data quality thresholds for the Child Welfare Outcomes Report, please reference the full report or the Child Welfare Outcomes data site.  Back
3 The total child population and data on race/ethnicity represent estimates from the Census Bureau https://www.census.gov/data/tables.html . Child poverty data are from the Census Bureau's American Community Survey (ACS). Due to the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic, the 2020 poverty estimates are not available on data.census.gov. The 2020 poverty estimates are considered experimental and can be found on the ACS Experimental Data webpage: https://www.census.gov/programs-surveys/acs/data/experimental-data.html.  Back
4 For race/ethnicity tables, all races exclude children of Hispanic origin. The Child Welfare Outcomes Report data site http://cwoutcomes.acf.hhs.gov/cwodatasite provides alternative race/ethnicity breakdowns in which race and ethnicity are treated as two separate categories.  Back
5 A child victim is defined as a child for whom the state determined at least one maltreatment was substantiated or indicated. This includes a child who died of child abuse and neglect. This is a change from prior years when children with dispositions of alternative response victim were included as victims. The rate for foster care entry is per 1,000 children in the state population. Data on child maltreatment victims are from NCANDS. Data on foster care entry rate, children in foster care on 9/30, and children adopted are from AFCARS.  Back
6 The reporting population subject to the caseworker visits requirements includes all children under age 18 for at least the first day of the FY (October 1) who have been in foster care for at least one full calendar month during the FY. All states have the option of using an approved sampling procedure for the caseworker visits reporting requirement.  Back

B. Child Maltreatment Data (National Child Abuse and Neglect Data System [NCANDS]) 7

Overview Maltreatment Information 8
  2015 2016 2017 2018 2019
  Number Rate Number Rate Number Rate Number Rate Number Rate
Children subject of an investigated report alleging child maltreatment 30,927 23.0 per 1,000 32,020 23.8 per 1,000 32,433 24.1 per 1,000 32,244 24.1 per 1,000 32,196 24.1 per 1,000
Total child maltreatment victims 6,790 5.0 per 1,000 6,993 5.2 per 1,000 7,578 5.6 per 1,000 7,743 5.8 per 1,000 7,661 5.7 per 1,000
Child Fatalities 28 2.1 per 100,000 32 2.4 per 100,000 41 3.1 per 100,000 40 3.0 per 100,000 55 4.1 per 100,000
Age of Child Victims (%)
  2015 2016 2017 2018 2019
Under 1 year 8.4 8.4 7.7 7.3 7.4
1 year 6.3 6.1 6.0 5.6 5.3
2 years 5.6 5.8 5.8 5.8 5.3
3 years 6.2 6.6 5.4 5.9 6.5
4 years 5.9 6.3 6.6 6.0 5.7
5 years 6.5 6.3 6.1 5.7 6.1
6 years 6.8 6.0 6.2 5.8 5.8
7 years 6.8 6.4 5.8 6.4 5.9
8 years 5.5 5.4 5.9 5.2 5.3
9 years 4.9 5.0 5.3 5.7 5.1
10 years 4.4 4.9 5.8 5.4 5.4
11 years 4.5 4.6 4.9 5.3 5.6
12 years 5.0 4.2 5.0 5.6 5.3
13 years 4.7 4.9 4.4 4.9 5.3
14 years 5.1 5.4 5.4 5.2 5.4
15 years 5.0 5.1 4.9 5.2 5.4
16 years 4.7 4.6 5.0 4.7 5.0
17 years 3.3 3.5 3.5 3.8 3.7
18+ years <.1 <.1 <.1 <.1 <.1
Missing data 0.3 0.4 0.2 0.4 0.3
Number 6,790 6,993 7,578 7,743 7,661
Race/Ethnicity of Child Victims (%)
  2015 2016 2017 2018 2019
Alaska Native / American Indian <.1 0.1 <.1 0.1 0.1
Asian 0.9 0.7 0.6 0.9 1.0
Black 42.6 42.9 43.4 41.1 39.7
Native Hawaiian / Other Pacific Islander <.1 0.1 <.1 <.1 0.1
Hispanic (of any race) 8.5 8.5 8.0 8.9 8.8
White 34.6 31.4 30.6 29.1 28.6
Two or more races 2.3 2.3 2.3 2.2 1.9
Missing data 11.0 14.0 15.0 17.6 19.7
Number 6,790 6,993 7,578 7,743 7,661
Maltreatment Types of Child Victims (%) 9
  2015 2016 2017 2018 2019
Emotional abuse 0.3 0.2 0.1 0.3 0.2
Medical neglect N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A
Neglect 63.8 64.1 65.2 66.8 65.1
Physical abuse 23.8 23.7 23.1 20.3 20.9
Sexual abuse 24.6 24.9 24.1 25.3 25.9
Sex trafficking 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0
Missing data 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0
Other 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0
Number 6,790 6,993 7,578 7,743 7,661
Time to Investigation (in hours) 10
  2015 2016 2017 2018 2019
Mean 62.0 66.3 74.2 75.1 88.1
Median <24 <24 <24 <24 <24

7 The unique count of child victims counts a child only once regardless of the number of times he or she was found to be a victim during the reporting year.  Back
8 The rates for Child Protective Services responses and victims are per 1,000 children under age 18; for fatalities, the rate is per 100,000 children under age 18.  Back
9 These percentages are calculated against the number of unique victims. A child may have been the victim of more than one type of maltreatment, or the same type of maltreatment more than once. As a result, the total percentages both within and across maltreatment categories may exceed 100.  Back
10 Response time is defined as the time between the report of suspected maltreatment and the first face-to-face contact with the alleged victim or with another person who can provide information on the allegation.  Back

C. Characteristics of Children in Foster Care (Adoption and Foster Care Analysis and Reporting System [AFCARS] Foster Care File)

Overview Foster Care Information
  In Foster Care on 10/1 FY Entered Foster Care in FY Exited Foster Care in FY In Foster Care on 9/30 FY
  2015 2016 2017 2018 2019 2015 2016 2017 2018 2019 2015 2016 2017 2018 2019 2015 2016 2017 2018 2019
Total number 3,931 3,766 3,753 3,797 3,871 2,114 2,250 2,366 2,413 1,917 2,131 2,176 2,196 2,237 1,948 3,914 3,841 3,923 3,973 3,839
Median length of stay (months) 17.8 16.9 14.8 14.8 14.5 N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A 16.6 16.0 13.6 15.2 17.0 16.5 14.6 14.5 14.0 16.7
Age of Children in Foster Care (%)
  In Foster Care on 10/1 FY Entered Foster Care in FY Exited Foster Care in FY In Foster Care on 9/30 FY
  2015 2016 2017 2018 2019 2015 2016 2017 2018 2019 2015 2016 2017 2018 2019 2015 2016 2017 2018 2019
Under 1 year 5.7 5.5 6.6 6.6 6.8 17.3 18.6 18.9 19.7 19.5 4.9 4.8 6.3 7.2 5.1 5.4 6.6 6.7 6.9 5.8
1 year 7.6 7.7 7.6 8.0 7.6 7.2 7.3 6.7 6.5 6.6 7.0 7.4 7.3 7.6 6.4 7.6 7.5 7.9 7.8 8.4
2 years 5.9 6.3 6.7 6.8 6.7 5.7 5.6 6.3 6.0 5.5 7.8 8.0 7.4 7.0 7.5 6.2 6.9 6.9 6.7 7.1
3 years 4.5 5.5 5.0 5.8 5.8 6.2 5.3 4.8 5.3 4.8 6.9 6.9 6.1 7.2 5.4 5.5 5.1 5.8 5.8 6.0
4 years 4.0 3.9 5.0 4.8 4.8 3.5 5.1 5.4 4.9 4.4 4.7 4.9 5.4 6.3 6.5 3.9 5.0 4.9 4.9 5.1
5 years 4.1 4.6 3.7 4.3 4.4 5.6 4.2 5.4 4.3 4.5 4.2 5.1 5.6 4.2 5.1 4.5 3.7 4.4 4.4 4.2
6 years 4.1 3.9 3.7 4.2 4.4 4.1 4.7 4.4 4.7 4.0 4.3 4.9 4.3 4.2 4.6 3.9 3.7 4.2 4.4 4.3
7 years 3.8 4.3 3.9 3.6 4.1 4.2 4.4 4.0 4.5 4.6 4.3 4.5 4.3 4.4 5.2 4.1 4.0 3.7 4.1 4.1
8 years 3.4 3.5 4.2 3.6 3.8 3.4 4.0 4.1 3.8 3.7 3.9 4.6 4.1 3.8 3.9 3.5 4.2 3.7 3.9 3.7
9 years 3.2 3.3 3.4 4.2 3.5 3.0 3.5 4.0 3.5 3.9 3.2 3.8 3.6 4.3 4.1 3.4 3.4 4.2 3.4 4.1
10 years 3.0 3.2 3.6 3.4 4.4 3.1 3.3 3.3 4.4 3.8 3.0 2.7 3.6 2.9 3.7 3.1 3.5 3.3 4.5 3.4
11 years 3.2 3.3 3.2 3.8 3.5 3.5 3.2 3.9 3.1 4.3 2.9 3.4 3.2 3.6 3.6 3.3 3.2 3.8 3.4 4.1
12 years 4.0 3.5 3.3 3.5 4.0 3.9 3.6 3.8 3.9 4.3 2.9 2.5 2.8 3.2 3.3 3.4 3.4 3.6 3.8 4.2
13 years 4.8 5.1 4.2 3.7 4.6 5.5 4.6 3.8 4.8 4.4 3.7 3.2 3.3 2.8 3.3 5.0 4.2 3.7 4.6 4.5
14 years 6.6 5.7 6.2 5.0 4.8 5.2 5.6 5.5 5.2 4.9 3.9 3.7 4.0 2.8 3.2 5.6 6.2 4.9 4.7 5.0
15 years 7.5 7.7 7.0 7.0 6.1 6.9 6.3 5.3 5.4 5.7 4.2 3.2 3.4 3.0 3.8 7.9 7.1 6.8 6.2 5.7
16 years 9.2 8.3 8.6 8.0 8.0 6.2 5.5 5.5 5.3 6.2 3.6 4.5 4.3 3.8 3.0 8.4 8.6 7.9 8.2 7.3
17 years 11.1 10.4 9.4 9.7 8.9 5.1 5.0 4.3 4.5 4.5 12.6 12.5 11.6 12.2 14.0 10.6 9.2 9.5 8.8 9.4
18 years 2.4 2.5 2.6 2.2 2.1 0.3 0.2 0.4 0.2 0.2 9.3 7.1 6.3 6.6 5.8 2.6 2.5 2.3 2.2 1.8
19 years 1.2 1.2 1.3 1.1 0.8 0.1 <.1 <.1 0.0 0.1 1.4 0.8 1.0 1.2 0.9 1.3 1.2 1.2 0.8 0.9
20+ years 0.6 0.7 1.0 0.9 0.7 <.1 0.0 <.1 <.1 0.0 0.3 0.9 0.5 0.5 0.3 0.7 0.8 0.8 0.7 0.6
Missing data <.1 <.1 <.1 0.0 <.1 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 <.1 0.9 0.7 1.4 1.1 1.3 <.1 <.1 <.1 0.0 <.1
Race/Ethnicity of Children in Foster Care (%)
  In Foster Care on 10/1 FY Entered Foster Care in FY Exited Foster Care in FY In Foster Care on 9/30 FY
  2015 2016 2017 2018 2019 2015 2016 2017 2018 2019 2015 2016 2017 2018 2019 2015 2016 2017 2018 2019
Alaska Native / American Indian <.1 <.1 <.1 <.1 0.0 <.1 0.1 0.0 0.0 0.2 <.1 <.1 0.0 <.1 0.0 <.1 <.1 <.1 0.0 <.1
Asian 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.4 0.5 0.4 0.6 0.4 0.9 0.9 0.4 0.4 0.5 0.7 0.8 0.3 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.6
Black 56.4 55.1 54.3 53.6 53.3 53.2 50.8 51.9 52.5 49.8 54.3 51.5 53.4 53.4 52.1 55.7 54.5 53.4 53.1 52.2
Native Hawaiian / Other Pacific Islander 0.0 <.1 <.1 0.0 0.0 <.1 <.1 0.0 0.0 0.2 0.0 0.0 0.1 0.0 0.0 <.1 <.1 0.0 0.0 <.1
Hispanic (of any race) 5.5 5.8 7.0 6.8 7.2 5.3 7.1 6.0 6.5 6.1 5.1 5.4 6.6 6.0 7.0 5.7 6.8 6.7 7.0 6.7
White 28.9 29.3 28.4 28.0 27.2 30.0 30.0 26.7 25.4 27.2 30.9 31.9 28.7 27.5 27.7 28.4 28.2 27.2 26.7 27.0
Two or more races 5.7 6.0 5.4 5.1 5.0 4.3 3.6 3.4 3.6 3.5 4.5 5.5 4.2 4.5 4.7 5.6 4.9 4.8 4.5 4.4
Unknown 2.5 2.5 3.0 4.0 4.6 4.0 5.2 7.3 6.9 7.8 3.2 4.0 4.6 4.6 5.6 2.9 3.3 4.7 5.4 5.7
Missing data 0.7 0.8 1.2 2.1 2.1 2.7 2.7 4.3 4.2 4.4 1.5 1.3 2.0 3.2 2.2 1.4 1.7 2.7 2.8 3.2

D. Characteristics of Children "Waiting for Adoption" 11 (AFCARS Foster Care File)

Children Waiting for Adoption
  2015 2016 2017 2018 2019
Total waiting children 508 468 481 385 370
Number of waiting children whose parents' rights have been terminated 151 162 159 147 142

11 There is no federal definition for a child waiting to be adopted. The definition used in the tables on this page includes children and youth through age 17 who have a goal of adoption and/or whose parents' parental rights have been terminated. It excludes children 16 years old and older whose parents' parental rights have been terminated and who have a goal of emancipation. A state's own definition may differ from that used here.  Back

Age of Children Waiting for Adoption (%) 12
  2015 2016 2017 2018 2019
Under 1 year 2.0 2.4 2.5 2.6 2.2
1 year 11.6 10.0 13.3 7.8 10.8
2 years 11.4 11.5 13.1 10.1 12.7
3 years 8.3 8.1 10.0 11.7 8.1
4 years 5.9 6.4 6.7 7.3 7.8
5 years 3.9 4.3 5.0 5.5 3.2
6 years 4.7 4.9 4.8 5.2 5.9
7 years 5.7 4.7 4.0 4.2 5.1
8 years 5.3 3.8 5.0 3.9 3.8
9 years 4.7 3.6 4.4 4.7 4.6
10 years 4.9 4.9 2.3 5.7 3.2
11 years 6.1 4.9 2.9 3.4 4.6
12 years 4.5 6.0 3.3 3.9 4.3
13 years 4.1 4.9 4.0 4.4 4.1
14 years 4.1 5.8 5.2 4.7 5.9
15 years 4.7 5.8 5.2 6.0 5.1
16 years 4.5 4.7 4.8 4.4 5.1
17 years 3.3 3.2 3.7 4.7 3.2

12 Children older than 17 years fall outside of the definition used to identify waiting children and are therefore excluded from this table.  Back

Race/Ethnicity of Children Waiting for Adoption (%)
  2015 2016 2017 2018 2019
Alaska Native / American Indian 0.2 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0
Asian 0.2 0.2 0.4 0.3 0.0
Black 40.7 41.7 41.0 45.7 39.2
Native Hawaiian / Other Pacific Islander 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0
Hispanic (of any race) 7.5 9.6 7.7 7.5 6.8
White 37.6 35.3 36.0 33.0 38.9
Two or more races 9.1 9.2 7.1 7.5 5.7
Unknown 3.9 3.4 4.8 3.9 4.6
Missing data 0.8 0.6 3.1 2.1 4.9

E. Characteristics of Children Adopted (AFCARS Adoption File)

Children Adopted
  2015 2016 2017 2018 2019
Total children adopted 294 361 348 353 291
Age of Children Adopted (%)
  2015 2016 2017 2018 2019
Under 1 year 0.7 3.0 1.4 2.0 1.0
1 year 13.6 13.3 14.4 15.9 10.3
2 years 23.5 19.7 15.5 18.7 16.2
3 years 13.6 13.9 13.2 15.3 14.8
4 years 6.5 8.3 10.9 8.5 12.4
5 years 5.8 5.5 6.0 7.6 8.2
6 years 7.8 6.6 3.4 5.9 5.2
7 years 5.1 4.7 4.0 4.2 6.5
8 years 4.4 6.1 6.0 5.7 4.5
9 years 2.4 5.3 2.6 3.7 4.5
10 years 3.1 2.8 5.2 2.0 4.5
11 years 2.0 4.2 4.9 2.5 2.7
12 years 1.7 0.6 2.0 1.1 2.1
13 years 4.8 2.5 3.7 2.0 2.1
14 years 1.7 0.8 2.3 1.1 1.7
15 years 1.0 1.4 1.1 1.4 0.3
16 years 0.3 0.6 0.3 0.8 1.7
17 years 1.4 0.6 1.7 0.6 1.4
18 years 0.7 0.0 1.1 0.6 0.0
19 years 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0
20+ years 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.3 0.0
Race/Ethnicity of Children Adopted (%)
  2015 2016 2017 2018 2019
Alaska Native / American Indian 0.0 0.3 0.0 0.0 0.0
Asian 0.3 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.3
Black 38.8 36.6 32.5 33.1 38.8
Native Hawaiian / Other Pacific Islander 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0
Hispanic (of any race) 4.4 5.0 8.6 6.2 6.9
White 45.6 39.1 39.4 44.8 38.1
Two or more races 3.7 12.5 13.8 8.5 10.3
Unknown 5.1 4.7 4.9 6.2 4.1
Missing data 2.0 1.9 0.9 1.1 1.4

Maryland [Outcomes Data]

Reduce Recurrence of Child Abuse and/or Neglect (NCANDS)

Recurrence of Maltreatment Within 12 Months (%)
  2015-2016 2016-2017 2017-2018 2018-2019 2019-2020
Children without a recurrence 92.9 93.0 92.3 91.2 93.1
Children with one or more recurrences 7.1 7.0 7.7 8.8 6.9
Number 3,286 3,456 3,782 3,871 3,782

Reduce the Incidence of Child Abuse and/or Neglect in Foster Care (NCANDS and AFCARS Foster Care File)

2.1 Maltreatment in Foster Care (%)
  2015 2016 2017 2018 2019
Children maltreated while in foster care 0.41 0.60 0.47 0.55 0.54
Children not maltreated while in foster care 99.59 99.40 99.53 99.45 99.46
Number 6,045 6,017 6,119 6,210 5,789

Increase Permanency for Children in Foster Care (AFCARS Foster Care File)

3.1 Exits of Children From Foster Care (%)
  2015 2016 2017 2018 2019
Adoption 13.9 16.4 15.7 15.5 15.1
Guardianship 3.6 2.7 3.4 2.8 2.5
Reunification 61.3 62.2 63.5 62.7 63.0
Other 21.2 18.8 17.3 18.8 19.4
Missing data <.1 <.1 0.1 0.1 <.1
Number 2,131 2,176 2,196 2,237 1,949
Exits of Children With a Diagnosed Disability (%)
  2015 2016 2017 2018 2019
Adoption 9.0 11.6 16.0 11.9 13.6
Guardianship 3.6 2.3 3.5 3.7 3.7
Reunification 47.5 48.7 47.0 44.6 49.4
Other 39.9 37.4 33.2 39.6 33.2
Missing data 0.0 0.1 0.3 0.2 0.1
Number 908 931 944 882 862
Exits of Children Older than Age 12 at Entry Into Foster Care (%)
  2015 2016 2017 2018 2019
Adoption 0.7 0.7 0.7 1.2 0.9
Guardianship 1.7 1.8 2.7 1.8 2.3
Reunification 45.0 49.2 49.0 45.2 40.7
Other 52.5 48.1 47.3 51.5 56.1
Missing data 0.2 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.0
Number 604 565 582 571 528
Exits to Emancipation (%)
  2015 2016 2017 2018 2019
Children age 12 or younger at entry 30.2 33.8 28.3 28.3 20.0
Children older than 12 at entry 69.8 66.2 71.7 71.5 80.0
Missing data 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.3 0.0
Number 420 379 353 389 345
Exits by Race/Ethnicity (%)
  Alaska Native / American Indian Asian Black (non-Hispanic)
  2015 2016 2017 2018 2019 2015 2016 2017 2018 2019 2015 2016 2017 2018 2019
Adoption 0.0 100.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 11.1 0.0 0.0 0.0 6.7 9.9 11.6 9.5 9.3 10.7
Guardianship 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 6.7 3.6 3.0 3.3 3.0 2.3
Reunification 100.0 0.0 0.0 100.0 0.0 66.7 37.5 70.0 60.0 60.0 61.2 61.9 64.2 65.8 62.1
Other 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 22.2 62.5 30.0 40.0 26.7 25.1 23.4 22.9 21.8 24.8
Missing data 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 <.1 <.1 <.1 0.2 <.1
Number 2 1 0 1 0 9 8 10 15 15 1,158 1,121 1,172 1,195 1,016
Exits by Race/Ethnicity (%)
  Native Hawaiian/Other Pac. Is. Hispanic (of any race) White (non-Hispanic)
  2015 2016 2017 2018 2019 2015 2016 2017 2018 2019 2015 2016 2017 2018 2019
Adoption 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 12.0 16.2 22.2 15.6 14.7 21.4 20.5 22.0 24.4 20.0
Guardianship 0.0 0.0 33.3 0.0 0.0 6.5 2.6 2.8 5.9 3.7 3.2 2.0 3.8 2.4 2.4
Reunification 0.0 0.0 66.7 0.0 0.0 56.5 59.0 54.9 56.3 53.7 58.4 64.0 62.8 56.3 64.6
Other 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 25.0 22.2 19.4 22.2 27.9 17.0 13.5 11.3 16.7 13.0
Missing data 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.7 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.2 0.2 0.0
Number 0 0 3 0 0 108 117 144 135 136 659 694 631 615 539
Exits by Race/Ethnicity (%)
  Unable to Determine Two or More Races Missing Data
  2015 2016 2017 2018 2019 2015 2016 2017 2018 2019 2015 2016 2017 2018 2019
Adoption 11.6 26.7 18.0 25.0 17.4 12.6 29.2 43.0 23.8 27.5 19.4 20.7 9.3 21.1 27.9
Guardianship 7.2 1.2 1.0 0.0 1.8 1.1 5.0 6.5 4.0 4.4 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0
Reunification 76.8 66.3 77.0 74.0 78.9 71.6 52.5 45.2 55.4 53.8 71.0 79.3 88.4 73.2 72.1
Other 4.3 5.8 4.0 1.0 1.8 14.7 13.3 5.4 16.8 14.3 9.7 0.0 2.3 5.6 0.0
Missing data 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0
Number 69 86 100 104 109 95 120 93 101 91 31 29 43 71 43

Reduce Time to Reunification Without Increasing Reentry (AFCARS Foster Care File)

Time to Reunification (%)
  2015 2016 2017 2018 2019
Less than 12 mos. 54.8 60.2 64.6 59.6 51.3
At least 12 mos., but less than 24 mos. 27.0 24.0 24.0 24.4 30.2
At least 24 mos., but less than 36 mos. 10.0 8.9 7.2 10.3 12.7
At least 36 mos., but less than 48 mos. 3.8 3.7 1.8 2.7 3.0
48 or more mos. 4.2 3.0 2.3 2.4 2.5
Missing data 0.2 0.1 <.1 0.7 0.2
Number 1,306 1,353 1,394 1,403 1,227
Children Reentering Foster Care (%)
  2015 2016 2017 2018 2019
Children entering care for the first time 77.0 78.8 79.7 77.4 79.8
Children reentering care within 12 mos. of a prior episode 11.2 10.5 9.7 10.4 8.9
Children reentering care more than 12 mos. after a prior episode 11.6 10.5 10.5 11.9 11.3
Missing data 0.3 0.1 <.1 0.4 0.1
Number 2,114 2,250 2,366 2,413 1,917

Reduce Time in Foster Care to Adoption (AFCARS Foster Care File)

Time to Adoption (%)
  2015 2016 2017 2018 2019
Less than 12 mos. 2.7 3.7 2.3 2.9 1.7
At least 12 mos., but less than 24 mos. 35.1 24.7 25.9 27.7 20.7
At least 24 mos., but less than 36 mos. 33.4 35.4 34.6 42.9 35.0
At least 36 mos., but less than 48 mos. 11.1 21.6 17.4 18.7 24.8
48 or more mos. 17.6 14.6 19.8 7.8 17.7
Missing data 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0
Number 296 356 344 347 294

Increase Placement Stability (AFCARS Foster Care File)

Number of Placements by Time in Care (%)
  In Care Less Than 12 Months In Care at Least 12 months but Less Than 24 months In Care for 24 Months or Longer Time in Care Missing or Out of Range
  2015 2016 2017 2018 2019 2015 2016 2017 2018 2019 2015 2016 2017 2018 2019 2015 2016 2017 2018 2019
Children with 2 or fewer placements 87.5 87.3 85.9 84.8 84.6 70.3 71.3 71.0 68.3 68.5 41.7 42.7 44.7 44.9 45.7 75.0 91.2 78.9 56.5 89.3
Children with 3 or more placements 10.6 10.5 11.7 12.6 13.3 29.4 28.3 28.6 31.5 31.3 57.9 56.7 54.9 54.7 53.3 11.1 0.0 10.5 4.3 0.0
Missing Placement setting counts 1.9 2.2 2.4 2.6 2.1 0.3 0.4 0.3 0.2 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.4 0.4 1.0 13.9 8.8 10.5 39.1 10.7
Total number 2,363 2,533 2,695 2,714 2,162 1,461 1,397 1,480 1,564 1,679 2,185 2,053 1,925 1,909 1,920 36 34 19 23 28

Reduce Placement of Young Children in Group Homes or Institutions (AFCARS Foster Care File)

Most Recent Placement Settings of Children Who Entered Care During the Fiscal Year and Were Age 12 or Younger at the Time of This Placement (%)
  2015 2016 2017 2018 2019
Group homes 1.6 1.1 1.8 2.0 1.9
Institution 1.2 0.7 0.8 1.2 1.4
Other settings 97.3 98.1 97.4 96.9 96.7
Missing data 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0
Number 1,476 1,617 1,756 1,782 1,401