California

California [Context Data]

A. Context Statistics 1 2

General Child Population (Census Bureau) 3
  2016 2017 2018 2019 2020
Total children under 18 years 9,088,543 9,050,090 8,974,477 8,881,104 8,791,234
Race/ethnicity (%) 4
Alaska Native / American Indian 0.4 0.4 0.4 0.4 0.4
Asian 11.8 12.1 12.3 12.5 12.6
Black 5.2 5.1 5.0 5.0 5.0
Native Hawaiian / Other Pacific Islander 0.3 0.4 0.4 0.4 0.4
Hispanic (of any race) 51.6 51.5 51.5 51.5 51.6
White 25.8 25.5 25.3 25.0 24.8
Two or more races 4.9 5.0 5.1 5.2 5.3
Child population in poverty (%) 19.9 18.1 17.4 15.6 14.6
Child Welfare Summary 5
  2016 2017 2018 2019 2020
Child maltreatment victims 68,663 65,342 63,795 64,132 60,317
Foster care entry rate 3.4 3.1 3.0 3.2 2.8
Children in foster care on 9/30 54,683 51,866 52,336 51,267 50,735
Children adopted 6,542 6,524 6,966 6,981 5,562
Caseworker Visits 6
  2016 2017 2018 2019 2020
Children receiving monthly visits (%) 94 94 94 95 94
Numerator 559,287 544,178 521,789 512,724 513,096
Denominator 597,193 581,567 554,313 540,268 547,259
Children receiving visits in the home (%) 79 79 79 80 88
Numerator 442,865 430,412 413,617 408,959 449,544
Denominator 559,287 544,178 521,789 512,724 513,096

1 The source data for each table is indicated in parentheses for each section. A calendar year is the basis for data from the Census Bureau. Most of the other data on these pages are from the National Child Abuse and Neglect Data System (NCANDS) or the Adoption and Foster Care Analysis and Reporting System (AFCARS) and are based on the federal fiscal year, October 1 through September 30.  Back
2 Data that did not meet the quality standards for inclusion in the report are represented as DQ*. Incomplete data excluded from inclusion in the report are represented as --. For additional information on the data quality thresholds for the Child Welfare Outcomes Report, please reference the full report or the Child Welfare Outcomes data site.  Back
3 The total child population and data on race/ethnicity represent estimates from the Census Bureau https://www.census.gov/data/tables.html . Child poverty data are from the Census Bureau's American Community Survey (ACS). Due to the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic, the 2020 poverty estimates are not available on data.census.gov. The 2020 poverty estimates are considered experimental and can be found on the ACS Experimental Data webpage: https://www.census.gov/programs-surveys/acs/data/experimental-data.html.  Back
4 For race/ethnicity tables, all races exclude children of Hispanic origin. The Child Welfare Outcomes Report data site http://cwoutcomes.acf.hhs.gov/cwodatasite provides alternative race/ethnicity breakdowns in which race and ethnicity are treated as two separate categories.  Back
5 A child victim is defined as a child for whom the state determined at least one maltreatment was substantiated or indicated. This includes a child who died of child abuse and neglect. This is a change from prior years when children with dispositions of alternative response victim were included as victims. The rate for foster care entry is per 1,000 children in the state population. Data on child maltreatment victims are from NCANDS. Data on foster care entry rate, children in foster care on 9/30, and children adopted are from AFCARS.  Back
6 The reporting population subject to the caseworker visits requirements includes all children under age 18 for at least the first day of the FY (October 1) who have been in foster care for at least one full calendar month during the FY. All states have the option of using an approved sampling procedure for the caseworker visits reporting requirement.  Back

B. Child Maltreatment Data (National Child Abuse and Neglect Data System [NCANDS]) 7

Overview Maltreatment Information 8
  2016 2017 2018 2019 2020
  Number Rate Number Rate Number Rate Number Rate Number Rate
Children subject of an investigated report alleging child maltreatment 376,738 41.5 per 1,000 365,921 40.4 per 1,000 360,040 40.1 per 1,000 343,536 38.7 per 1,000 306,919 34.9 per 1,000
Total child maltreatment victims 68,663 7.6 per 1,000 65,342 7.2 per 1,000 63,795 7.1 per 1,000 64,132 7.2 per 1,000 60,317 6.9 per 1,000
Child Fatalities 137 1.5 per 100,000 147 1.6 per 100,000 145 1.6 per 100,000 153 1.7 per 100,000 143 1.6 per 100,000
Age of Child Victims (%)
  2016 2017 2018 2019 2020
Under 1 year 15.9 16.2 16.0 15.8 16.2
1 year 6.9 6.8 6.7 6.6 6.5
2 years 6.3 6.3 6.3 6.1 6.3
3 years 6.0 6.1 5.9 5.9 5.8
4 years 5.8 5.6 5.6 5.6 5.5
5 years 5.8 5.6 5.7 5.7 5.6
6 years 5.7 5.5 5.5 5.2 5.5
7 years 5.7 5.4 5.4 5.4 5.1
8 years 5.3 5.2 5.1 4.9 5.0
9 years 5.1 5.0 4.9 5.0 4.7
10 years 4.6 4.7 4.9 4.8 4.7
11 years 4.1 4.4 4.6 4.9 4.5
12 years 4.2 4.2 4.4 4.7 4.7
13 years 4.0 4.3 4.2 4.4 4.5
14 years 3.9 4.0 4.0 4.2 4.3
15 years 3.8 4.0 4.0 4.1 4.1
16 years 3.8 3.7 3.6 3.7 3.8
17 years 2.9 2.9 3.0 2.8 3.0
18+ years <.1 <.1 <.1 <.1 <.1
Missing data <.1 <.1 <.1 <.1 <.1
Number 68,663 65,342 63,795 64,132 60,317
Race/Ethnicity of Child Victims (%)
  2016 2017 2018 2019 2020
Alaska Native / American Indian 0.9 0.9 0.8 0.9 0.8
Asian 2.4 2.2 2.5 2.6 2.6
Black 13.6 13.0 13.3 13.0 13.1
Native Hawaiian / Other Pacific Islander 0.3 0.3 0.3 0.3 0.3
Hispanic (of any race) 55.8 55.2 55.6 55.9 55.8
White 20.6 20.2 20.0 19.9 19.7
Two or more races 2.1 2.2 2.0 2.2 2.1
Missing data 4.3 6.0 5.5 5.2 5.6
Number 68,663 65,342 63,795 64,132 60,317
Maltreatment Types of Child Victims (%) 9
  2016 2017 2018 2019 2020
Emotional abuse 12.0 10.8 10.3 9.3 9.2
Medical neglect 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.1 <.1
Neglect 91.6 93.1 93.0 94.3 94.0
Physical abuse 8.8 8.3 7.8 7.3 7.0
Sexual abuse 5.4 5.5 5.4 5.4 5.5
Sex trafficking 0.0 0.0 0.1 0.1 0.1
Missing data 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0
Other 0.5 0.6 0.8 0.7 0.8
Number 68,663 65,342 63,795 64,132 60,317
Time to Investigation (in hours) 10
  2016 2017 2018 2019 2020
Mean 139.4 137.3 147.7 147.8 141.0
Median >48 but <72 >72 but <96 >72 but <96 >72 but <96 >72 but <96

7 The unique count of child victims counts a child only once regardless of the number of times he or she was found to be a victim during the reporting year.  Back
8 The rates for Child Protective Services responses and victims are per 1,000 children under age 18; for fatalities, the rate is per 100,000 children under age 18.  Back
9 These percentages are calculated against the number of unique victims. A child may have been the victim of more than one type of maltreatment, or the same type of maltreatment more than once. As a result, the total percentages both within and across maltreatment categories may exceed 100.  Back
10 Response time is defined as the time between the report of suspected maltreatment and the first face-to-face contact with the alleged victim or with another person who can provide information on the allegation.  Back

C. Characteristics of Children in Foster Care (Adoption and Foster Care Analysis and Reporting System [AFCARS] Foster Care File)

Overview Foster Care Information
  In Foster Care on 10/1 FY Entered Foster Care in FY Exited Foster Care in FY In Foster Care on 9/30 FY
  2016 2017 2018 2019 2020 2016 2017 2018 2019 2020 2016 2017 2018 2019 2020 2016 2017 2018 2019 2020
Total number 54,637 52,390 51,031 49,747 49,691 31,254 28,016 27,178 28,138 24,748 31,211 28,539 25,879 26,622 23,704 54,683 51,866 52,336 51,267 50,735
Median length of stay (months) 13.8 14.2 15.0 15.2 14.5 N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A 15.1 16.0 16.2 16.7 15.6 14.0 14.6 15.3 14.4 16.2
Age of Children in Foster Care (%)
  In Foster Care on 10/1 FY Entered Foster Care in FY Exited Foster Care in FY In Foster Care on 9/30 FY
  2016 2017 2018 2019 2020 2016 2017 2018 2019 2020 2016 2017 2018 2019 2020 2016 2017 2018 2019 2020
Under 1 year 7.2 7.9 7.9 7.6 8.1 20.0 21.2 21.0 20.5 21.6 4.4 4.4 4.6 4.2 4.2 7.8 7.9 7.5 8.1 7.4
1 year 8.2 8.3 8.6 8.6 8.1 7.1 7.3 7.2 7.0 6.9 9.0 9.2 10.1 9.7 9.4 8.1 8.7 8.5 8.1 8.7
2 years 6.9 7.1 7.2 7.1 6.9 6.1 6.4 6.5 6.0 6.4 8.0 8.2 9.5 8.7 8.6 6.9 7.2 7.0 6.9 6.9
3 years 5.9 6.2 6.2 6.0 6.0 5.6 6.2 6.0 5.7 5.9 6.8 7.4 7.6 7.6 7.2 6.1 6.3 6.0 5.9 6.1
4 years 5.5 5.4 5.5 5.5 5.4 4.9 5.1 5.2 5.3 5.1 5.9 6.1 6.9 6.2 6.1 5.3 5.5 5.4 5.4 5.4
5 years 4.7 5.0 4.9 4.9 5.0 4.9 4.9 5.0 5.3 5.1 5.6 5.5 5.8 5.9 5.7 4.9 4.9 4.9 5.0 5.1
6 years 4.8 4.7 4.9 4.4 4.6 4.7 5.0 4.6 4.7 4.8 5.1 5.0 5.4 5.0 5.0 4.5 4.9 4.4 4.6 4.7
7 years 4.6 4.7 4.5 4.6 4.4 4.5 4.7 4.6 4.7 4.5 4.8 5.2 5.5 4.9 4.8 4.6 4.5 4.5 4.3 4.4
8 years 4.5 4.5 4.4 4.2 4.4 4.0 4.2 4.2 4.2 4.2 4.6 4.3 4.8 4.8 4.7 4.4 4.5 4.1 4.3 4.1
9 years 4.1 4.3 4.3 4.2 3.9 4.0 4.0 3.9 4.1 3.7 4.4 4.4 4.7 4.4 4.2 4.3 4.4 4.1 3.9 4.1
10 years 3.9 4.1 4.1 4.1 4.1 3.5 3.8 3.9 3.7 3.9 3.6 4.1 4.2 4.1 4.3 4.0 4.1 4.0 4.0 3.8
11 years 3.5 3.9 4.0 4.0 4.1 3.3 3.4 3.8 3.9 3.5 3.3 3.4 4.1 4.0 3.7 3.8 4.0 3.9 4.1 3.8
12 years 3.5 3.6 3.9 4.1 4.1 3.3 3.4 3.6 4.0 3.8 3.1 3.3 3.5 3.5 3.6 3.6 4.0 4.0 4.1 4.0
13 years 3.8 3.8 3.7 4.0 4.3 3.4 3.6 3.6 4.0 3.8 2.9 2.9 3.3 3.5 3.6 3.7 3.8 3.9 4.3 4.2
14 years 4.3 4.1 4.1 4.1 4.2 4.1 3.9 3.9 3.9 4.0 2.9 3.0 3.2 3.1 3.2 4.2 4.2 4.0 4.2 4.6
15 years 5.2 4.8 4.5 4.6 4.6 4.7 3.9 4.2 4.1 3.8 3.3 3.1 2.9 2.8 3.0 5.1 4.6 4.6 4.6 4.6
16 years 6.2 5.6 5.2 4.9 5.2 5.6 4.4 3.9 4.1 4.2 4.1 3.7 3.2 3.0 3.4 6.0 5.3 4.9 5.3 5.0
17 years 7.4 6.6 4.7 5.6 5.4 5.2 3.8 3.4 3.3 3.3 4.3 3.5 2.7 2.1 2.4 7.1 6.0 5.7 5.5 5.6
18 years 5.5 5.5 4.0 2.6 2.5 1.0 0.8 0.6 0.6 0.7 5.3 4.5 2.9 7.0 7.2 5.6 5.1 3.8 2.6 2.5
19 years 0.0 0.0 2.5 2.6 2.5 <.1 0.0 0.6 0.5 0.5 8.6 8.9 2.7 0.5 0.4 0.0 0.0 2.5 2.4 2.4
20+ years 0.0 0.0 1.1 2.5 2.4 0.0 0.0 0.2 0.3 0.3 0.0 0.0 0.5 1.0 0.6 0.0 0.0 2.5 2.5 2.5
Missing data 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 1.9 4.1 4.7 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0
Race/Ethnicity of Children in Foster Care (%)
  In Foster Care on 10/1 FY Entered Foster Care in FY Exited Foster Care in FY In Foster Care on 9/30 FY
  2016 2017 2018 2019 2020 2016 2017 2018 2019 2020 2016 2017 2018 2019 2020 2016 2017 2018 2019 2020
Alaska Native / American Indian 0.8 0.8 0.8 0.7 0.7 0.8 1.0 0.7 0.8 0.8 0.8 0.9 1.0 0.8 0.8 0.8 0.8 0.7 0.7 0.7
Asian 1.2 1.1 1.1 1.2 1.2 1.6 1.4 1.8 1.7 1.8 1.8 1.3 1.6 1.6 1.7 1.2 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.3
Black 19.3 19.3 19.2 18.9 18.6 17.4 16.5 16.3 16.2 16.5 17.1 16.8 16.5 16.3 16.4 19.4 19.1 19.0 18.7 18.6
Native Hawaiian / Other Pacific Islander 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.3 0.2 0.3 0.2 0.2 0.3 0.3 0.2 0.3 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.2
Hispanic (of any race) 53.1 51.0 51.4 53.3 54.4 53.5 51.9 53.0 55.0 54.8 53.4 53.3 52.0 54.5 54.7 53.2 50.3 51.9 53.6 54.4
White 20.2 19.7 19.2 19.2 18.7 20.9 20.5 20.6 19.7 19.7 21.4 20.9 20.3 20.0 20.3 19.9 19.4 19.3 19.0 18.4
Two or more races 4.9 5.1 5.1 4.8 4.8 4.4 4.5 3.9 4.2 4.4 4.7 4.9 4.7 4.5 4.5 4.8 4.9 4.7 4.7 4.8
Unknown 0.1 0.2 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.2 0.3 0.3 0.6 0.6 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.1 0.2 0.2 0.4 0.4
Missing data <.1 2.6 2.8 1.4 1.0 0.9 3.8 3.1 1.5 1.1 0.3 1.4 3.5 1.5 0.9 0.4 3.9 2.7 1.4 1.2

D. Characteristics of Children "Waiting for Adoption" 11 (AFCARS Foster Care File)

Children Waiting for Adoption
  2016 2017 2018 2019 2020
Total waiting children 14,689 15,097 14,866 14,436 15,019
Number of waiting children whose parents' rights have been terminated 6,712 7,107 7,098 7,262 6,518

11 There is no federal definition for a child waiting to be adopted. The definition used in the tables on this page includes children and youth through age 17 who have a goal of adoption and/or whose parents' parental rights have been terminated. It excludes children 16 years old and older whose parents' parental rights have been terminated and who have a goal of emancipation. A state's own definition may differ from that used here.  Back

Age of Children Waiting for Adoption (%) 12
  2016 2017 2018 2019 2020
Under 1 year 7.2 6.9 6.9 7.3 5.8
1 year 13.0 14.2 14.0 12.9 13.9
2 years 12.1 12.0 11.9 11.5 11.1
3 years 10.1 9.8 9.2 9.3 9.5
4 years 8.2 7.9 8.1 7.7 7.8
5 years 7.1 7.0 6.8 7.0 6.9
6 years 5.9 6.3 5.9 5.8 6.0
7 years 5.7 5.3 5.5 5.2 5.4
8 years 5.7 5.3 4.8 5.1 4.7
9 years 4.8 4.8 4.7 4.3 4.7
10 years 4.2 4.0 4.3 4.4 4.0
11 years 3.8 3.6 3.6 3.9 3.8
12 years 2.9 3.4 3.7 3.6 3.7
13 years 2.6 2.5 3.0 3.3 3.3
14 years 2.0 2.3 2.4 2.9 3.1
15 years 2.0 2.0 2.2 2.4 2.6
16 years 1.5 1.7 1.8 2.1 2.0
17 years 1.4 1.2 1.2 1.4 1.5

12 Children older than 17 years fall outside of the definition used to identify waiting children and are therefore excluded from this table.  Back

Race/Ethnicity of Children Waiting for Adoption (%)
  2016 2017 2018 2019 2020
Alaska Native / American Indian 0.7 0.7 0.6 0.7 0.6
Asian 1.0 0.9 1.0 1.1 1.1
Black 16.3 16.7 16.4 16.9 16.5
Native Hawaiian / Other Pacific Islander 0.2 0.2 0.1 0.2 0.2
Hispanic (of any race) 54.8 50.9 53.1 53.7 54.6
White 22.0 21.3 21.0 20.7 20.6
Two or more races 4.9 5.3 5.0 5.2 4.9
Unknown 0.1 0.2 0.2 0.3 0.4
Missing data <.1 3.8 2.5 1.3 1.2

E. Characteristics of Children Adopted (AFCARS Adoption File)

Children Adopted
  2016 2017 2018 2019 2020
Total children adopted 6,542 6,524 6,966 6,981 5,562
Age of Children Adopted (%)
  2016 2017 2018 2019 2020
Under 1 year 2.5 2.2 1.9 2.1 1.6
1 year 16.9 15.9 16.1 16.6 16.3
2 years 15.7 15.2 17.6 16.2 16.4
3 years 11.9 13.1 12.0 12.2 12.1
4 years 9.4 9.4 9.4 8.9 9.0
5 years 8.2 7.9 7.1 7.9 7.6
6 years 6.3 6.1 6.4 6.0 6.2
7 years 5.5 5.5 5.6 5.4 4.9
8 years 4.9 5.0 4.5 4.5 4.4
9 years 4.1 4.9 4.2 3.9 3.8
10 years 3.5 3.8 3.5 3.8 3.9
11 years 2.8 2.8 3.3 3.6 3.5
12 years 2.3 2.0 2.3 2.5 2.5
13 years 1.6 1.8 1.9 2.1 2.2
14 years 1.5 1.4 1.6 1.6 2.1
15 years 1.1 1.0 0.9 0.9 1.2
16 years 0.8 0.9 0.8 1.1 1.2
17 years 0.7 0.7 0.7 0.7 1.0
18 years 0.2 0.2 0.1 0.1 0.2
19 years <.1 <.1 <.1 <.1 <.1
20+ years 0.1 0.0 <.1 0.0 <.1
Race/Ethnicity of Children Adopted (%)
  2016 2017 2018 2019 2020
Alaska Native / American Indian 0.5 0.7 0.7 0.6 0.5
Asian 1.5 1.0 1.1 0.9 1.0
Black 12.0 12.7 12.6 13.5 13.4
Native Hawaiian / Other Pacific Islander 0.2 0.2 0.3 0.2 0.2
Hispanic (of any race) 52.4 53.3 51.1 52.9 52.8
White 26.8 26.0 25.3 25.1 25.2
Two or more races 6.5 5.6 6.3 5.7 5.9
Unknown 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.3 0.5
Missing data <.1 0.3 2.4 0.7 0.5

California [Outcomes Data]

Reduce Recurrence of Child Abuse and/or Neglect (NCANDS)

Recurrence of Maltreatment Within 12 Months (%)
  2015-2016 2016-2017 2017-2018 2018-2019 2019-2020
Children without a recurrence 91.7 92.3 91.8 92.1 92.5
Children with one or more recurrences 8.3 7.7 8.2 7.9 7.5
Number 71,761 67,829 65,352 63,833 64,333

Reduce the Incidence of Child Abuse and/or Neglect in Foster Care (NCANDS and AFCARS Foster Care File)

2.1 Maltreatment in Foster Care (%)
  2016 2017 2018 2019 2020
Children maltreated while in foster care 0.19 0.18 0.19 0.19 0.25
Children not maltreated while in foster care 99.81 99.82 99.81 99.81 99.75
Number 85,896 80,408 78,215 77,889 74,441

Increase Permanency for Children in Foster Care (AFCARS Foster Care File)

3.1 Exits of Children From Foster Care (%)
  2016 2017 2018 2019 2020
Adoption 20.4 22.2 25.8 25.4 22.3
Guardianship 10.7 11.0 10.9 9.6 8.6
Reunification 52.7 51.6 53.8 51.0 54.5
Other 15.6 15.1 9.3 14.0 14.5
Missing data 0.6 0.1 0.1 <.1 0.1
Number 31,211 28,539 25,879 26,622 23,704
Exits of Children With a Diagnosed Disability (%)
  2016 2017 2018 2019 2020
Adoption 24.4 26.4 31.2 32.0 29.5
Guardianship 12.1 12.0 12.7 11.1 9.4
Reunification 42.3 41.2 44.0 38.6 41.8
Other 20.4 20.3 12.0 18.2 19.1
Missing data 0.8 0.1 0.2 <.1 0.1
Number 8,485 8,052 7,721 8,237 7,362
Exits of Children Older than Age 12 at Entry Into Foster Care (%)
  2016 2017 2018 2019 2020
Adoption 1.2 1.4 1.9 1.8 2.3
Guardianship 5.2 5.8 7.3 5.2 6.1
Reunification 41.5 40.6 47.6 37.5 37.3
Other 50.1 52.1 42.8 55.4 54.1
Missing data 1.9 0.2 0.4 0.1 0.2
Number 7,647 6,439 4,385 5,136 4,960
Exits to Emancipation (%)
  2016 2017 2018 2019 2020
Children age 12 or younger at entry 21.4 21.9 19.6 21.7 20.4
Children older than 12 at entry 78.6 78.1 80.3 78.3 79.6
Missing data <.1 0.0 <.1 0.0 0.0
Number 4,013 3,677 1,988 3,273 3,021
Exits by Race/Ethnicity (%)
  Alaska Native / American Indian Asian Black (non-Hispanic)
  2016 2017 2018 2019 2020 2016 2017 2018 2019 2020 2016 2017 2018 2019 2020
Adoption 12.2 15.8 19.4 19.9 13.3 17.1 16.7 16.7 14.7 14.4 14.4 16.7 19.9 21.3 18.4
Guardianship 22.8 19.3 22.3 13.7 16.1 6.6 8.5 5.9 3.7 5.1 13.9 14.7 14.9 12.7 11.1
Reunification 48.8 44.0 49.8 47.9 51.7 64.7 61.1 71.5 67.0 62.5 47.8 47.3 50.7 45.2 49.3
Other 15.4 20.8 8.5 17.5 18.9 11.7 13.8 5.9 14.7 18.0 23.4 21.2 14.3 20.7 21.0
Missing data 0.8 0.0 0.0 0.9 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.6 <.1 0.2 0.1 0.1
Number 246 259 247 211 180 549 378 407 436 395 5,349 4,799 4,270 4,349 3,881
Exits by Race/Ethnicity (%)
  Native Hawaiian/Other Pac. Is. Hispanic (of any race) White (non-Hispanic)
  2016 2017 2018 2019 2020 2016 2017 2018 2019 2020 2016 2017 2018 2019 2020
Adoption 10.8 10.7 32.2 21.7 18.0 20.1 22.2 25.6 24.7 21.5 25.3 27.5 31.8 31.5 27.5
Guardianship 7.8 11.9 5.1 2.9 10.0 10.8 10.7 10.4 10.0 8.4 8.4 8.3 8.4 6.6 6.8
Reunification 56.9 65.5 45.8 62.3 64.0 54.8 53.6 55.8 53.1 57.2 51.5 49.7 50.2 48.7 52.2
Other 23.5 11.9 16.9 13.0 8.0 13.7 13.4 8.1 12.1 12.8 14.1 14.2 9.3 13.1 13.3
Missing data 1.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.5 0.1 <.1 <.1 0.1 0.6 0.3 0.2 <.1 0.2
Number 102 84 59 69 50 16,673 15,198 13,467 14,512 12,965 6,675 5,965 5,254 5,326 4,823
Exits by Race/Ethnicity (%)
  Unable to Determine Two or More Races Missing Data
  2016 2017 2018 2019 2020 2016 2017 2018 2019 2020 2016 2017 2018 2019 2020
Adoption 28.3 18.8 30.0 15.3 23.3 27.5 26.0 33.7 31.6 29.0 1.0 4.9 18.0 11.5 12.1
Guardianship 1.9 14.5 11.7 5.9 8.3 9.1 11.6 10.8 8.0 9.2 4.1 14.5 12.9 12.7 10.3
Reunification 43.4 50.7 46.7 65.3 58.6 46.2 46.5 46.5 44.2 46.2 87.6 66.1 63.0 63.6 59.3
Other 26.4 14.5 11.7 13.6 9.8 16.0 15.8 8.8 15.9 15.5 7.2 14.5 6.0 12.2 17.8
Missing data 0.0 1.4 0.0 0.0 0.0 1.2 <.1 <.1 0.3 <.1 0.0 0.0 0.1 0.0 0.5
Number 53 69 60 118 133 1,467 1,401 1,210 1,192 1,063 97 386 905 409 214

Reduce Time to Reunification Without Increasing Reentry (AFCARS Foster Care File)

Time to Reunification (%)
  2016 2017 2018 2019 2020
Less than 12 mos. 63.2 63.9 63.2 63.0 61.9
At least 12 mos., but less than 24 mos. 31.3 30.7 30.9 31.3 33.0
At least 24 mos., but less than 36 mos. 3.4 3.4 3.6 3.7 3.5
At least 36 mos., but less than 48 mos. 0.9 1.1 1.1 1.0 0.7
48 or more mos. 1.1 0.9 1.2 1.0 0.9
Missing data <.1 <.1 <.1 <.1 <.1
Number 16,449 14,720 13,925 13,567 12,916
Children Reentering Foster Care (%)
  2016 2017 2018 2019 2020
Children entering care for the first time 79.7 79.7 79.4 80.0 80.2
Children reentering care within 12 mos. of a prior episode 8.2 7.6 8.0 7.3 7.2
Children reentering care more than 12 mos. after a prior episode 11.6 12.4 12.3 12.2 12.2
Missing data 0.5 0.4 0.3 0.5 0.4
Number 31,254 28,016 27,178 28,138 24,748

Reduce Time in Foster Care to Adoption (AFCARS Foster Care File)

Time to Adoption (%)
  2016 2017 2018 2019 2020
Less than 12 mos. 4.5 3.9 3.4 4.0 3.3
At least 12 mos., but less than 24 mos. 30.8 29.4 29.8 29.7 28.7
At least 24 mos., but less than 36 mos. 36.6 35.1 36.1 34.3 33.4
At least 36 mos., but less than 48 mos. 17.4 19.9 18.4 18.6 19.6
48 or more mos. 10.7 11.7 12.3 13.5 15.1
Missing data 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0
Number 6,373 6,325 6,689 6,753 5,282

Increase Placement Stability (AFCARS Foster Care File)

Number of Placements by Time in Care (%)
  In Care Less Than 12 Months In Care at Least 12 months but Less Than 24 months In Care for 24 Months or Longer Time in Care Missing or Out of Range
  2016 2017 2018 2019 2020 2016 2017 2018 2019 2020 2016 2017 2018 2019 2020 2016 2017 2018 2019 2020
Children with 2 or fewer placements 84.6 87.9 87.8 87.8 88.9 66.1 70.1 70.8 71.4 73.2 39.6 42.4 42.5 42.6 44.5 95.6 100.0 90.9 97.4 96.2
Children with 3 or more placements 15.3 12.1 12.2 12.2 11.1 33.9 29.9 29.2 28.6 26.8 60.4 57.6 57.5 57.4 55.5 4.4 0.0 6.1 2.6 3.0
Missing Placement setting counts <.1 <.1 <.1 <.1 <.1 <.1 0.0 <.1 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 <.1 0.0 0.0 0.0 3.0 0.0 0.8
Total number 36,431 32,984 31,341 32,178 28,626 23,325 21,865 20,811 20,118 20,751 26,004 25,527 26,030 25,477 24,932 136 32 33 116 132

Reduce Placement of Young Children in Group Homes or Institutions (AFCARS Foster Care File)

Most Recent Placement Settings of Children Who Entered Care During the Fiscal Year and Were Age 12 or Younger at the Time of This Placement (%)
  2016 2017 2018 2019 2020
Group homes 0.8 0.9 0.9 0.6 0.5
Institution 1.7 1.6 1.7 1.3 1.2
Other settings 97.5 97.5 97.4 98.1 98.4
Missing data 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0
Number 23,632 22,215 21,538 22,187 19,539